João Ramalho-Santos

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BACKGROUND Human pluripotent stem cells have the ability to generate all cell types present in the adult organism, therefore harboring great potential for the in vitro study of differentiation and for the development of cell-based therapies. Nonetheless their use may prove challenging as incomplete differentiation of these cells might lead to(More)
An open chromatin largely devoid of heterochromatin is a hallmark of stem cells. It remains unknown whether an open chromatin is necessary for the differentiation potential of stem cells, and which molecules are needed to maintain open chromatin. Here we show that the chromatin remodelling factor Chd1 is required to maintain the open chromatin of(More)
The normal structure and function of sperm are prerequisites for successful fertilization and embryonic development, but little is known about how defective sperm are eliminated during mammalian spermatogenesis. Here, we describe a ubiquitin-dependent, sperm quality control mechanism that resides in the mammalian epididymis, the site of sperm maturation and(More)
The strictly maternal inheritance of mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in mammals is a developmental paradox promoted by an unknown mechanism responsible for the destruction of the sperm mitochondria shortly after fertilization. We have recently reported that the sperm mitochondria are ubiquitinated inside the oocyte cytoplasm and later subjected(More)
[Ca(2+)]i signaling regulates sperm motility, enabling switching between functionally different behaviors that the sperm must employ as it ascends the female tract and fertilizes the oocyte. We report that different behaviors in human sperm are recruited according to the Ca(2+) signaling pathway used. Activation of CatSper (by raising pHi or stimulating(More)
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection has begun an era of considerable improvements in treating male infertility. Despite its success, questions remain about the dangers of transmitting traits responsible for male infertility, sex and autosomal chromosome aberrations and possible mental, physical and reproductive abnormalities. We report here the first births of(More)
Diabetes Mellitus (DM), a state of chronic hyperglycemia, is a major cause of serious micro and macrovascular diseases, affecting, therefore, nearly every system in the body. Growing evidence indicates that oxidative stress is increased in diabetes due to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased efficiency of antioxidant defences, a(More)
Ubiquitination of the sperm mitochondria during spermatogenesis has been implicated in the targeted degradation of paternal mitochondria after fertilization, a mechanism proposed to promote the predominantly maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA in humans and animals. The identity of ubiquitinated substrates in the sperm mitochondria is not known. In(More)
Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) pluripotency has been reported by several groups to be best maintained by culture under physiological oxygen conditions. Building on that finding, we inhibited complex III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain using antimycin A or myxothiazol to examine if specifically targeting the mitochondria would have a similar(More)