In this article we present a survey of routing methods in Optical Burst Switching (OBS) networks. We begin with a description of routing approaches and follow the discussion with a detailed classification of routing algorithms in OBS. Afterwards, we discuss common OBS network loss models that are frequently used in routing optimization. As examples of such… (More)
Phylogenetic group D Escherichia coli clones (ST69, ST393, ST405) are increasingly reported as multidrug resistant strains causing extra-intestinal infections. We aim to characterize inter- and intraclonal diversity of a broad sample (isolates from different geographic locations and origins with variable antibiotic resistance profiles, 1980-2010) and their… (More)
—This work proposes a distributed framework for routing path optimization in Optical Burst-Switched (OBS) networks loosely mimicking the foraging behavior of ants, which in the past has originated the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) metaheuristic. The distributed framework consists of additional data structures stored at the nodes and special control packets… (More)
The attack rate among these soldiers was 53.3% (8/15): 7 P. vivax infections and 1 co-infection with P. vivax and P. falciparum. Mosquitoes were collected 3 months later by using human landing catches during 5 consecutive days. The area had been free of illegal gold mining activities since the 15 soldiers were deployed. A total of 321 Anopheles mosquitoes… (More)
The in-house Carba-NP and Blue-Carba tests were compared using 30 carbapenemase- and 33 non-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Tests were read by three operators. 100% sensitivity was reported for both tests, but Carba-NP was slightly more specific than Blue-Carba (98.9% vs. 91.7%). We describe potential sources of error during tests' preparation and reading.