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Methylene blue (MB) is a molecule that has been playing important roles in microbiology and pharmacology for some time. It has been widely used to stain living organisms, to treat methemoglobinemia, and lately it has been considered as a drug for photodynamic therapy (PDT). In this review, we start from the fundamental photophysical, photochemical and(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to show the efficiency and underlying mechanism of action of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using methylene blue (MB) and non-coherent light sources to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). BACKGROUND DATA Systemic treatment can cause severe side effects, and PDT using porphyrin precursors as sensitizers has been used as(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with phenotiazinium compounds (methylene blue and toluidine blue) and excitation by a non-coherent light source (RL50) to treat AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (Sk-AIDS). BACKGROUND DATA Sk-AIDS is a malignant disease that is recurrent in AIDS patients. Laser-based(More)
The feet of diabetic patients continue to be an unsolved problem in medicine. Uncontrolled neuropathy, ulceration and infection usually lead to amputation and presently there is no effective and reliable method that can be used to provide an efficient cure. Overall improvement in the salvage strategies, based on comprehensive pre-clinical evaluation,(More)
OBJECTIVE This article describes two inexpensive photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) protocols to provide intensive local care on ulcerated feet of diabetic patients with osteomyelitis. BACKGROUND DATA Patients with this condition generally have poor quality of life. The usual treatment consists of the administration of a cocktail of drugs(More)
BACKGROUND Malignant melanoma (MM) is a very aggressive tumour. Although surgical excision of MM in the early stages has a very good prognosis, it often fails to completely inhibit tumour progression. Methylene blue photodynamic therapy (MB-PDT) is a technique that induces tissue damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS). AIM To investigate the efficacy of(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Chlorophyllin-M is a new chlorophyll-based derivative photosensitive compound developed by our research group with easy laboratorial synthesis and ideal properties for photodynamic therapy (PDT). It is intended for clinical treatments with simple and low cost techniques and reagents. The objective of this study is to evaluate if(More)
The clinical use of topical photodynamic therapy in herpes simplex lesions in São Paulo is presented and discussed. Although previous attempts utilising this type of approach in the USA were discontinued in the early 1970s due to several presentations of post-treatment Bowen's disease, none of the cases from the clinic presented here have displayed any(More)
BACKGROUND Vulvar lichen sclerosus (VLS) is a lymphocyte-mediated disease of unknown etiology that can cause intense itching as well stenosis, hindering the evacuation and urination. It can also limit the sex life due to severe local pruritus, pain and dyspareunia (pain during sexual intercourse). The standard treatment for this disease is the use of(More)