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Structural damage of the human brain (perinatal damage, cerebral trauma, head injury, cerebrovascular and degenerative diseases, intracranial tumor, metabolic diseases, toxins, drug-induced seizures) may lead to chronic epilepsy in survivors. Epidemiologic analyses show that a considerable time-delay occurs between the exposure of the brain to injury and(More)
This study determined differences of fascia dentata (FD) peptide and inhibitory neuroanatomy between patients with epileptogenic hippocampal sclerosis (HS), those with extrahippocampal seizure pathologies, and autopsy comparisons. Surgically treated temporal lobe epilepsy patients were clinically classified into two pathogenic categories: (1) HS with focal(More)
Seizures induced by pilocarpine (PILO) have proven to be a useful procedure for investigating the basic mechanisms essential for generation, spread and motor expression of seizures in rodents. Here we report the long-term effects of PILO in rats. Following PILO (380 mg/kg, IP), 3 distinct phases were observed: 1) an acute period which lasted 1-2 days which(More)
OBJECTIVE Sodium-coupled transporters remove extracellular neurotransmitters and alterations in their function could enhance or suppress synaptic transmission and seizures. This study determined hippocampal gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate transporter immunoreactivity (IR) in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients. METHODS Hippocampal sclerosis(More)
Better treatments for schizophrenia are urgently needed. The therapeutic use of the nitric oxide (NO)-donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in patients with schizophrenia has shown promising results. The role of NO in schizophrenia is still unclear, and NO modulation is unexplored in ketamine (KET) animal models to date. In the present study, we compared the(More)
Previously, Mathern et al. (1992) demonstrated progressive mossy fiber (MF) sprouting in the intrahippocampal rat kainate seizure model. This study looked at the time course of EEG hyperexcitability and spontaneous seizure activity in the same in vivo model to determine if seizures were associated with MF sprouting. Results showed that animals progressed(More)
BACKGROUND Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy related to hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) is the most common surgically remediable epileptic syndrome. Ablation of the cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) gene (PRNP) enhances neuronal excitability of the hippocampus in vitro and sensitivity to seizure in vivo, indicating that PrP(c) might be related to epilepsy. (More)
Cholinergic fibers from the brainstem and basal forebrain innervate the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) modulating neuronal activity and synaptic plasticity responses to hippocampal inputs. Here, we investigated the muscarinic and glutamatergic modulation of long-term depression (LTD) in the intact projections from CA1 to mPFC in vivo. Cortical-evoked(More)
In epilepsy patients with cortical dysplasia (CD), this study determined the probable ontogenetic timing of pathogenesis based on the number, location and appearance of neurons. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) determined gray and white matter volumes of affected and non-affected cerebral hemispheres, and gray and white matter neuronal-nuclear protein(More)
In this study, we determined whether childhood seizures were associated with hippocampal neuron loss and mossy fibre synaptic reorganization and if hippocampal sclerosis evolved from longer seizure histories. Children undergoing surgical treatment for catastrophic epilepsy were grouped into the following pathology categories: (i) those with generalized(More)