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Structural damage of the human brain (perinatal damage, cerebral trauma, head injury, cerebrovascular and degenerative diseases, intracranial tumor, metabolic diseases, toxins, drug-induced seizures) may lead to chronic epilepsy in survivors. Epidemiologic analyses show that a considerable time-delay occurs between the exposure of the brain to injury and(More)
This study determined differences of fascia dentata (FD) peptide and inhibitory neuroanatomy between patients with epileptogenic hippocampal sclerosis (HS), those with extrahippocampal seizure pathologies, and autopsy comparisons. Surgically treated temporal lobe epilepsy patients were clinically classified into two pathogenic categories: (1) HS with focal(More)
Seizures induced by pilocarpine (PILO) have proven to be a useful procedure for investigating the basic mechanisms essential for generation, spread and motor expression of seizures in rodents. Here we report the long-term effects of PILO in rats. Following PILO (380 mg/kg, IP), 3 distinct phases were observed: 1) an acute period which lasted 1-2 days which(More)
Local or systemic administration of pilocarpine and kainate in rodents leads to a pattern of repetitive limbic seizures and status epilepticus, which can last for several hours. A latent period follows status epilepticus and precedes a chronic phase, which is characterized by the occurrence of spontaneous limbic seizures. These distinct features, in a(More)
OBJECTIVE Sodium-coupled transporters remove extracellular neurotransmitters and alterations in their function could enhance or suppress synaptic transmission and seizures. This study determined hippocampal gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate transporter immunoreactivity (IR) in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients. METHODS Hippocampal sclerosis(More)
BACKGROUND Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy related to hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) is the most common surgically remediable epileptic syndrome. Ablation of the cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) gene (PRNP) enhances neuronal excitability of the hippocampus in vitro and sensitivity to seizure in vivo, indicating that PrP(c) might be related to epilepsy. (More)
Better treatments for schizophrenia are urgently needed. The therapeutic use of the nitric oxide (NO)-donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in patients with schizophrenia has shown promising results. The role of NO in schizophrenia is still unclear, and NO modulation is unexplored in ketamine (KET) animal models to date. In the present study, we compared the(More)
Cholinergic fibers from the brainstem and basal forebrain innervate the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) modulating neuronal activity and synaptic plasticity responses to hippocampal inputs. Here, we investigated the muscarinic and glutamatergic modulation of long-term depression (LTD) in the intact projections from CA1 to mPFC in vivo. Cortical-evoked(More)
PURPOSE There is considerable controversy whether childhood seizures damage existing neurons and/or adversely affect neurogenesis and synaptogenesis. This study addressed this question by examining fascia dentata neurogenesis, cell death, and aberrant axon connections in hippocampi from children with extratemporal seizure foci. METHODS Surgically resected(More)
To design useful experimental models of epilepsy, it is necessary to clearly understand the known clinical-pathologic features of the disease process. Studies of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) patients have identified several distinctive clinical and pathophysiologic characteristics and many of these can be analyzed in experimental models. For(More)