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The endoscope allows for better inspection for cholesteatoma in cases with chronic otitis media, better access to selective epitympanic poor ventilation and secondary selective chronic otitis media, better visualization of anterior poor ventilation of the mesotympanum (reestablishing adequate ventilation to the mesotympanum), better visualization and(More)
This article presents the endoscopic anatomy of the retrotympanum and its relationship to other important anatomic landmarks in the middle ear to provide understanding of its importance and relevance during surgeries. A well-detailed tour of the retrotympanum, its associated structures, variability of anatomic structures, and surgical relevance is presented.
OBJECT The authors describe the utility of and outcomes after endoscopic transnasal craniotomy and skull reconstruction in the management of skull base pathologies. METHODS The authors conducted a observational study of patients undergoing totally endoscopic, transnasal, transdural surgery. The patients included in the study underwent treatment over a(More)
Currently, the main application of endoscopic surgery relies on the middle ear cholesteatoma surgical treatment. However, in the natural evolution of the technique there are the steps toward of lateral skull base surgery and treatment of pathologic conditions of pertous bone. The endoscopic approaches to lateral skull base are (1) a transcanal exclusively(More)
Endoscopic techniques have influenced almost all of the surgical specialties. From open procedures to minimally invasive approaches, the endoscope and its ability to reach areas within the human body has gained popularity among specialists, creating a revolution in some fields. Two of the fields in which endoscopes provided a true revolution are(More)
The authors present a manual of transcanal ear dissection, a completely clinically focused discussion of the goals, steps, and outcomes of endoscopic dissection of the middle ear. From operating station setup through instrumentation and tasks, the reader is presented with detailed technique steps interspersed with observe notes that provide anatomic and(More)
—As the interest on Network Virtualization continues to grow, so does the awareness of the many technical obstacles to transpose before the envisioned virtualized network environment may become a reality. A significant obstacle lies on the efficient assignment of virtual resources into physical ones. Performing the so-called mapping of a virtual network(More)
—The ever-increasing requirements for performance, flexibility, and robustness are imposing a severe strain on the Internet's stagnated architecture. Network virtualization arises as a potential solution for improving the current situation by letting multiple networks with different requirements, architectures and protocols to coexist and share the same(More)
Network virtualization arises as a potential solution for addressing the current IP limitations through a non-disruptive route, by letting multiple networks, running different protocols, to coexist and share the same infrastructure in an independent way. The purpose of this paper is to make this coexistence of networks a reality through the real support of(More)