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HIV-1 Vif (viral infectivity factor) protein overcomes the antiviral activity of the DNA deaminase APOBEC3G by targeting it for proteasomal degradation. We report here that Vif targets APOBEC3G for degradation by forming an SCF-like E3 ubiquitin ligase containing Cullin 5 and Elongins B and C (Cul5-EloB-EloC) through a novel SOCS (suppressor of cytokine(More)
BACKGROUND Successful gametogenesis requires the establishment of an appropriate epigenetic state in developing germ cells. Nevertheless, an association between abnormal spermatogenesis and epigenetic disturbances in germline-specific genes remains to be demonstrated. METHODS In this study, the DNA methylation pattern of the promoter CpG island (CGI) of(More)
BACKGROUND The three azoospermia factor (AZF) regions of the Y chromosome represent genomic niches for spermatogenesis genes. Yet, the most distal region, AZFc, is a major generator of large-scale variation in the human genome. Determining to what extent this variability affects spermatogenesis is a highly contentious topic in human reproduction. METHODS(More)
The azoospermia factor (AZF) regions consist of three genetic domains in the long arm of the human Y chromosome referred to as AZFa, AZFb and AZFc. These are of importance for male fertility since they are home to genes required for spermatogenesis. In this paper a comprehensive analysis of AZF structure and gene content will be undertaken. Particular care(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) primer-binding site (PBS) is a highly conserved region in the HIV genome and represents an attractive target for the development of new anti-HIV therapies. In this study, we designed four artificial zinc finger transcription factors to bind at or adjacent to the PBS and repress transcription from the HIV-1(More)
The first complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences (approximately 16,569 bp) in 20 patients with asthenozoospermia and a comparison with 23 new complete mtDNA sequences in teratoasthenozoospermic individuals, confirmed no sharing of specific polymorphisms or specific mitochondrial lineages between these individuals. This is strong evidence against the(More)
A mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup association study carried out in 101 southern Portuguese males with oligozoospermia showed to be negative when comparing with a geographically matching control sample. Misleading positive association signs were however obtained when using other control samples from the same country. This shows that mtDNA population(More)
Small molecule inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1) have been extremely successful but are associated with a myriad of undesirable effects and require lifelong daily dosing. In this study we explore an alternative approach, that of inducing intracellular immunity using designed, zinc finger-based transcription factors. Three(More)
Hybridoma fusion technology, proposed by Köhler and Milstein in 1975, started major developments in the field of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). During the following 2 decades, their high potential as laboratory tools was rapidly exploited for biotechnology and biomedical applications. Today, mAbs represent over 30% of all biological proteins undergoing(More)
Gonadal failure, along with early pregnancy loss and perinatal death, may be an important filter that limits the propagation of harmful mutations in the human population. We hypothesized that men with spermatogenic impairment, a disease with unknown genetic architecture and a common cause of male infertility, are enriched for rare deleterious mutations(More)