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Pain is defined as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, but emotional states are difficult to directly assess in animals. Researchers have assessed pain using behavioural and physiological measures, but these approaches are limited to understanding the arousal rather than valence of the emotional(More)
Negative emotional states in humans are associated with a negative (pessimistic) response bias towards ambiguous cues in judgement tasks. Every mammalian young is eventually weaned; this period of increasing nutritional and social independence from the dam is associated with a pronounced behavioural response, especially when weaning is abrupt as commonly(More)
Nectarivorous flower mites (Mesostigmata: Melicharidae) live mostly on hummingbird-pollinated plants in the New World. We observed Proctolaelaps sp. living on Neoregelia johannis (Bromeliaceae) in a coastal rain forest site in south-eastern Brazil. Flower anthesis of this bromeliad lasted a single day. We recorded mites moving into, feeding from, presumably(More)
A supervisory expert system based on fuzzy logic rules was developed for diagnosis and control of a laboratory- scale plant comprising anaerobic digestion and anoxic/aerobic modules for combined high rate biological N and C removal. The design and implementation of a computational environment in LabVIEW for data acquisition, plant operation and distributed(More)
Rodents and primates deprived of early social contact exhibit deficits in learning and behavioural flexibility. They often also exhibit apparent signs of elevated anxiety, although the relationship between these effects has not been studied. To investigate whether dairy calves are similarly affected, we first compared calves housed in standard individual(More)
We perform a likelihood analysis of the constraints from accelerator experiments and astrophysical observations on supersymmetric (SUSY) models with SU(5) boundary conditions on soft SUSY-breaking parameters at the GUT scale. The parameter space of the models studied has seven parameters: a universal gaugino mass [Formula: see text], distinct masses for the(More)
Here we report dairy calf management practices used by 242 smallholder family farmers in the South of Brazil. Data were collected via a semi-structured questionnaire with farmers, inspection of the production environment and an in-depth interview with a sample of 26 farmers. Herds had an average of 22.3 lactating cows and an average milk production of 12.7(More)
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