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This paper illustrates how a modern heuristic and two classical integer programming models have been combined to provide a solution to a nurse rostering problem at a major UK hospital. Neither a heuristic nor an exact approach based on a standard IP package was able to meet all the practical requirements. This was overcome by using a variant of tabu search(More)
The transcription factor NF-kappa B is exploited by many viruses, including the human immunodeficiency virus, for expression of viral genes, but its primary role appears to be in the rapid induction of cellular genes during immune and inflammatory responses. The inhibitor protein I kappa B alpha maintains NF-kappa B in an inactive form in the cytoplasms of(More)
Quorum sensing control mediated by N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signaling molecules has been established as a key feature of the regulation of exoenzyme production in many gram-negative bacteria. In Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 31532 a number of phenotypic characteristics, including production of the purple pigment violacein, hydrogen cyanide,(More)
Activation of transcription factor NF-kappaB involves signal-induced degradation of the protein inhibitor IkappaB-alpha and release of NF-kappaB which translocates to the nucleus where it influences transcription of responsive genes. Although multiple regions of IkappaB-alpha are involved in this process, the N-terminal region of the protein has been(More)
Many lines of Plasmodium falciparum undergo a deletion of the right end of chromosome 9 during in vitro cultivation accompanied by loss of cytoadherence to melanoma cells. The deletion also results in loss of expression of PfEMP1, the putative cytoadherence ligand, suggesting that PfEMP1 or a regulatory gene controlling PfEMP1 expression is encoded in this(More)
This Letter reports results from the MINOS experiment based on its initial exposure to neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. The rates and energy spectra of charged current nu(mu) interactions are compared in two detectors located along the beam axis at distances of 1 and 735 km. With 1.27 x 10(20) 120 GeV protons incident on the NuMI target, 215 events(More)
Lactating dairy goats were exposed to aflatoxin (100 and 200 ppb) and hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate at 1, 2, and 4% in two separate experiments. Naturally occurring low levels of aflatoxin M1 (.009 ppb) were found in the milk of the control diet, whereas there were no detectable levels of aflatoxin M1 in the milk of diets containing hydrated(More)
Virulence of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is believed to relate to adhesion of parasitized erythrocytes to postcapillary venular endothelium (asexual cytoadherence). Transmission of malaria to the mosquito vector involves a switch from asexual to sexual development (gametocytogenesis). Continuous in vitro culture of P. falciparum(More)
Growth of neurites from trypsin-dissociated retinal neurons from chick embryos is very sensitive to the extracellular calcium concentration. Blockers of calcium permeability such as Co2+, Mn2+, La3+ and nitrendipine, when added to dissociated neurons, decrease the fraction of cells that extend neurites and the rate of neurite growth without influencing(More)
The safety, infectivity, immunogenicity, transmissibility, and phenotypic stability of an intranasal bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV-3) candidate vaccine was evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV-3)-seronegative children, 92% were infected, and 92% developed a serum(More)