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Excess biomass accumulation and activity loss in vapor-phase bioreactors (VPBs) can lead to unreliable long-term operation. In this study, temporal and spatial variations in biomass accumulation, distribution and activity in VPBs treating toluene-contaminated air were monitored over a 96-day period. Two laboratory-scale bioreactors were subjected to a(More)
Device modeling and simulation studies of a Cu(In1-x,Gax)Se2 (CIGS) thin film solar cell have been carried out. A variety of graded band-gap structures, including space charge region (SCR) grading, back surface region grading, and double grading of the CIGS absorber layer, are examined. The device physics and performance parameters for different band-gap(More)
Device modeling and simulation of a mechanically stacked CuGaSe2/Cu(In1-x,Gax)Se2 (CGS/CIGS) tandem solar cell have been carried out in this study. The physical model consists of a CIGS bottom cell with a double graded band-gap profile in the space charge region (SCR) and the backside of the absorber layer and a uniform band-gap CGS top cell. By varying the(More)
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