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TLRs mediate diverse signaling after recognition of evolutionary conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns such as LPS and lipopeptides. Both TLR2 and TLR4 are known to trigger a protective immune response as well as cellular apoptosis. In this study, we present evidence that TLR4, but not TLR2, mediates an autoregulatory apoptosis of activated(More)
Lipocalin 2 (LCN2), which is also known as 24p3 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), binds small, hydrophobic ligands and interacts with cell surface receptor 24p3R to regulate diverse cellular processes. In the present study, we examined the role of LCN2 in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain using a mouse model of spared nerve injury(More)
Microglia are innate immune cells in the central nervous system. Activation of microglia plays an important role in the processes of several neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and HIV dementia. Activated microglia can produce various proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide (NO), which may exert neurotoxic(More)
Neuropeptides are short-chain peptides found in brain tissue, some of which function as neurotransmitters and others as hormones. Neuropeptides may directly or indirectly modulate glial functions in the CNS. In the present study, effects of various neuropeptides on the viability and inflammatory activation of cultured microglia were investigated. Vasoactive(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Obovatol isolated from the medicinal herb Magnolia obovata exhibits a variety of biological activities. Here, the effect of obovatol and its mechanism of action on microglial activation, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration were investigated. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH In microglial BV-2 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS),(More)
Hypoxia is an important biological signal that regulates a wide variety of physiological responses. At the same time, hypoxia is involved in multiple pathological situations. In particular, hypoxia is closely associated with neural injury in the brain. Hypoxia has been recently proposed as a neuroinflammatogen, as it can induce the inflammatory activation(More)
In the course of screening inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 induction in macrophages, we isolated decursin, a coumarin compound, from the roots of Angelicae gigas. As a marker for the screening and isolation, we tested expression of MMP-9 in RAW264.7 cells and THP-1 cells after treatment with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the TLR-4(More)
Glial activation and neuroinflammatory processes play an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and HIV dementia. Activated glial cells can secrete various proinflammatory cytokines and neurotoxic mediators, which may contribute to neuronal cell death. Inhibition of glial activation(More)
Excessive microglial activation with overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress products is linked to the progression of several neurodegenerative diseases; therefore, suppression of microglial activation is a potential therapeutic approach against these diseases. Since nitric oxide (NO) is one of the major inflammatory mediators that(More)
Chemical genetics is a new field of study that employs diverse small-molecule compounds to interrogate specific biological functions. The chemical genetics approach has been recently applied to microglial biology. Microglial cells are the primary immune cells of the brain, and are believed to play a major role in both host defense and tissue repair in the(More)