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RIP1 and RIP3 kinases are central players in TNF-induced programmed necrosis. Here, we report that the RIP homotypic interaction motifs (RHIMs) of RIP1 and RIP3 mediate the assembly of heterodimeric filamentous structures. The fibrils exhibit classical characteristics of β-amyloids, as shown by Thioflavin T (ThT) and Congo red (CR) binding, circular(More)
Members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily play key roles in innate and adaptive immunity. Here, we review recent structural studies in the intracellular signal transduction of these receptors. A central theme revealed from these structural studies is that upon ligand binding, multiple intracellular proteins form higher-order signaling(More)
Autophagy is an intracellular bulk degradation system, which delivers cytoplasmic components to the lysosome/vacuole. In yeast and mammalian cells, the Apg12-Apg5 conjugate, together with Apg16, form a multimeric complex, which plays an essential role in autopihageosome formation. By large-scale sequencing analysis of a human fetal brain cDNA library, we(More)
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) plays a key role in the lipid metabolism and transporting. It can catalyze the hydrolysis of chylomicron and very low-density lipoprotein triglyceride. Moreover, the abnormality of LPL associates with many pathophysiological conditions. Herein cDNA microarray and Northern blots analysis were used to study the expression of(More)
The Toll-like receptor (TLR)-interleukin 1 receptor (IL-1R) superfamily plays fundamentally important roles in innate immune and inflammatory responses. Structural studies have begun to show that upon ligand stimulation, TLRs and IL-1Rs assemble large oligomeric intracellular signaling complexes, or "signalosomes," to induce the activation of kinases and E3(More)
Guanosine monophosphate reductase (GMPR) catalyzes the irreversible and NADPH-dependent reductive deamination of GMP to IMP, and plays a critical role in re-utilization of free intracellular bases and purine nucleosides. Here, we report the first crystal structure of human GMP reductase 2 (hGMPR2) in complex with GMP at 3.0 A resolution. The protein forms a(More)
Ras proteins are members of the superfamily of small GTPase. A novel human Ras-like transcript, termed RasL10B, was isolated from human blood cell cDNA library. RasL10B gene contains four exons and three introns, which encodes a 203 amino acid protein with a molecular mass of about 23.2 kDa. RT-PCR analysis showed that RasL10B is expressed extensively in(More)
Sideroflexin1 (Sfxn1), the prototype of a novel family of evolutionarily conserved proteins present in eukaryotes, has been found mutated in mice with siderocytic anemia. It is speculated that this protein facilitates the transport of a component required for iron utilization into mitochondrial. During the large-scale sequencing analysis of a human fetal(More)
Innate immune responses depend on timely recognition of pathogenic or danger signals by multiple cell surface or cytoplasmic receptors and transmission of signals for proper counteractions through adaptor and effector molecules. At the forefront of innate immunity are four major signaling pathways, including those elicited by Toll-like receptors, RIG-I-like(More)
The constitutive photomorphogenesis 9 (COP9) signalosome (CSN) plays key roles in many biological processes, such as repression of photomorphogenesis in plants and protein subcellular localization, DNA-damage response, and NF-κB activation in mammals. It is an evolutionarily conserved eight-protein complex with subunits CSN1 to CSN8 named following the(More)