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The effects of intra- and intersubject variabilities in airway geometry on airflow in the human lungs are investigated by large eddy simulation. The airway models of two human subjects consisting of extra- and intrathoracic airways are reconstructed from CT images. For intrasubject study, airflows at two inspiratory flow rates are simulated on the airway(More)
We present a novel image-based technique to estimate a subject-specific boundary condition (BC) for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of pulmonary air flow. The information of regional ventilation for an individual is derived by registering two computed tomography (CT) lung datasets and then passed to the CT-resolved airways as the flow BC. The(More)
A novel algorithm is presented that links local structural variables (regional ventilation and deforming central airways) to global function (total lung volume) in the lung over three imaged lung volumes, to derive a breathing lung model for computational fluid dynamics simulation. The algorithm constitutes the core of an integrative, image-based(More)
High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is considered an efficient and safe respiratory technique to ventilate neonates and patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. HFOV has very different characteristics from normal breathing physiology, with a much smaller tidal volume and a higher breathing frequency. In this study, the high-frequency(More)
RATIONALE Smoking-related microvascular loss causes end-organ damage in the kidneys, heart, and brain. Basic research suggests a similar process in the lungs, but no large studies have assessed pulmonary microvascular blood flow (PMBF) in early chronic lung disease. OBJECTIVES To investigate whether PMBF is reduced in mild as well as more severe chronic(More)
Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) has a dual role in the promotion or attenuation of cell death. Here, we demonstrated the role of NF-kappaB in the H(2)O(2)-induced death of astrocytes. H(2)O(2) evoked the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a marker of cell death, and concomitantly decreased the DNA binding and transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB in(More)
Donor-acceptor type organic dyes (TA-EDOT-CA and TA-DM-EDOT-CA) containing thiophenevinylene spacer with 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) substituent were synthesized and characterized for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). TA-EDOT-CA and TA-DM-EDOT-CA showed 26700 and 28000 M(-1) x cm(-1) of molar absorption coefficient at 458 nm and 459 nm of UV/vis(More)
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleep disorder caused by partial or complete collapse of the pharyngeal airway. Genioglossal advancement (GGA) is a well-tolerated surgical procedure intended to address hypopharyngeal collapse, yet there are few studies that monitor changes in airflow dynamics at this site. Computation fluid dynamics(More)