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Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is included in some sunscreen formulations to physically block ultraviolet radiation. A dermal penetration study was conducted in minipigs with three TiO(2) particles (uncoated submicron sized, uncoated nano-sized, and dimethicone/methicone copolymer-coated nanosized) applied 5% by weight in a sunscreen. These and control(More)
Nanoparticle size and plasma binding profile contribute to a particle's longevity in the bloodstream, which can have important consequences for therapeutic efficacy. In this study an approximate doubling in nanoparticle hydrodynamic size was observed upon in vitro incubation of 30- and 50-nm colloidal gold in human plasma. Plasma proteins that bind the(More)
The use of silver nanoparticles in food, food contact materials, dietary supplements and cosmetics has increased significantly owing to their antibacterial and antifungal properties. As a consequence, the need for validated rapid screening methods to assess their toxicity is necessary to ensure consumer safety. This study evaluated two widely used in vitro(More)
In an effort to understand the disposition and toxicokinetics of nanoscale materials, we used EDS (energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) to detect and map the distribution of titanium dioxide (TiO2) in tissue sections from mice following either subcutaneous (s.c.) or intravenous (i.v.) injection. TiO2 nanoparticles were administered at a dose of 560 mg/kg(More)
This paper reports an interlaboratory comparison that evaluated a protocol for measuring and analysing the particle size distribution of discrete, metallic, spheroidal nanoparticles using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The study was focused on automated image capture and automated particle analysis. NIST RM8012 gold nanoparticles (30 nm nominal(More)
Quantum dots (QDs) are being investigated as novel in vivo imaging agents. The leaching of toxic metals from these QDs in biological systems is of great concern. This study compared the cytotoxic mechanisms of two QD species made of different core materials (cadmium selenide [CdSe] vs. indium gallium phosphide [InGaP]) but similar core sizes (5.1 vs. 3.7(More)
We address an outstanding issue associated with the biocompatibility of gold nanorods (GNRs), a promising agent for biomedical imaging and theragnostics. GNRs are typically prepared in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), a cationic surfactant whose rigorous removal is necessary due to its cytotoxicity and membrane-compromising properties.(More)
Silver nanoparticles are commonly used in a variety of commercial and medical products. Here we investigate the effects of standard sterilization methods, including heat/steam (autoclave) and gamma-irradiation on the structural integrity and biocompatibility of citrate-stabilized silver nanoparticles with nominal sizes of 20, 40, 60 and 80 nm. Particle(More)
The physicochemical characteristics, in vitro properties, and in vivo toxicity and efficacy of a third generation triazine dendrimer bearing approximately nine 2 kDa polyethylene glycol chains and twelve ester linked paclitaxel groups are reported. The hydrodynamic diameter of the neutral construct varies slightly with aqueous solvent ranging from 15.6 to(More)
The bottom-up spatial organization of potential nanoelectronic components is a key intermediate step in the development of molecular electronics. We describe robust three-space-spanning DNA motifs that are used to organize nanoparticles in two dimensions. One strand of the motif ends in a gold nanoparticle; only one DNA strand is attached to the particle.(More)