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This paper studies the TCP performance with delayed ack in wireless networks (including ad hoc and WLANs) which use IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol as the underlying medium access control. Our analysis and simulations show that TCP throughput does not always benefit from an unrestricted delay policy. In fact, for a given topology and flow pattern, there exists an(More)
This paper concerns TCP Westwood (TCPW), a recently developed modification of TCP, in combination with RED queue management. We develop a fluid-flow model of TCPW with RED and use it to study both equilibrium and dynamic features. On the equilibrium side, we identify the scaling of window with loss-probability, and compare it to TCP NewReno. We also use the(More)
Mutations in sarcoglycans have been reported to cause autosomal-recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophies. In skeletal and cardiac muscle, sarcoglycans are assembled into a complex on the sarcolemma from four subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta). In this report, we present a detailed structural analysis of sarcoglycans using deletion study, limited(More)
High levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been extensively reported in urban areas and at e-waste recycling sites in coastal China. However, data are scarce in northern China and are not available in rural areas at all. In addition, it is often believed that air concentrations in rural areas are lower than those in urban areas without(More)
Human gene annotation is crucial for conducting transcriptomic and genetic studies; however, the impacts of human gene annotations in diverse databases on related studies have been less evaluated. To enable full use of various human annotation resources and better understand the human transcriptome, here we systematically compare the human annotations(More)
MicroRNAs play an important role in plant development and plant responses to various biotic and abiotic stimuli. As one of the most important ornamental crops, rose (Rosa hybrida) possesses several specific morphological and physiological features, including recurrent flowering, highly divergent flower shapes, colors and volatiles. Ethylene plays an(More)
Random loss in wireless ad hoc nets derives from two main causes: lossy wireless channels and node mobility. Breakage and loss can significantly degrade the performance of network protocols, especially TCP. Recently, several schemes have been proposed to protect TCP from mobility induced link breaks by freezing TCP state when a link break is detected. TCP(More)
Atmospheric PM10 were measured for 12 months at 18 sites along a 2500 km profile across northern China. Annual mean PM10 concentrations in urban, rural village, and rural field sites were 180 ± 171, 182 ± 154, and 128 ± 89 μg/m(3), respectively. The similarities in PM10 concentrations between urban and rural village sites suggest that strong localized(More)
Sarcoglycans are originally identified in muscle for their involvement in limb-girdle muscular dystrophies. They form a multi-meric complex (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta-sarcoglycan) that associates with dystrophin, dystroglycan and other proteins to constitute the larger dystrophin-glycoprotein complex at the muscle membrane. Three sarcoglycan subunits(More)