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Rodents (especially Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus) have been the most widely used models in biomedical research for many years. A notable shift has taken place over the last two decades, with mice taking a more and more prominent role in biomedical science compared to rats. This shift was primarily instigated by the availability of a much larger(More)
Heart rate (HR) and its adjustment are affected by different physiological conditions such as sleep, physical activity and the emotional state. The instantaneous beat-by-beat fluctuation of heartbeats provides important information about the physiological state of the brain. While the precise origin of beat-by-beat HR variability has not been identified(More)
5-HT(1A) receptors are implicated in the modulation of cognitive processes including encoding of fear learning. However, their exact role has remained unclear due to contrasting contributions of pre- vs. postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors. Therefore, their role in fear conditioning was studied in mice using the selective ligand S15535, which fully activates(More)
Memory impairments of DBA/2J mice have been frequently reported in spatial and emotional behavior tests. However, in some memory tests involving food reward, DBA/2J mice perform equally well to C57BL/6J mice or even outperform them. Thus, it is conceivable that motivational factors differentially affect cognitive performance of different mouse strains.(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The beat-by-beat fluctuation (dynamics) of heart rate (HR) depends on centrally mediated control of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) reflecting the physiological state of an organism. 5-HT1A receptors are implicated in affective disorders,associated with ANS dysregulation which increases cardiac risk but their role in autonomic HR(More)
Social cognition is an endophenotype that is impaired in schizophrenia and several other (comorbid) psychiatric disorders. One of the modulators of social cognition is dopamine, but its role is not clear. The effects of dopamine are mediated through dopamine receptors, including the dopamine D1 receptor (Drd1). Because current Drd1 receptor agonists are not(More)
There is ample evidence that prenatal exposure to valproate (or valproic acid, VPA) enhances the risk of developing Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). In line with this, a single injection of VPA induces a multitude of ASD-like symptoms in animals, such as rats and mice. However, there is equally strong evidence that genetic factors contribute significantly(More)
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