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The anterior-posterior axis of the mouse embryo is established by two distinct organizing centres in the anterior visceral endoderm and the distal primitive streak. These organizers induce and pattern the head and trunk respectively, and have been proposed to be localized through coordinate cell movements that rotate a pre-existing proximal-distal axis.(More)
Specification of the left-right (L-R) axis in the vertebrate embryo requires transfer of positional information from the node to the periphery, resulting in asymmetric gene expression in the lateral plate mesoderm. We show that this activation of L-R lateral asymmetry requires the evolutionarily conserved activity of members of the EGF-CFC family of(More)
Fish serum contains several specific binding proteins for insulin-like growth factors (IGFBPs). The structure and physiological function of these fish IGFBPs are unknown. Here we report the complete primary sequence of a zebrafish IGFBP deduced from cDNA clones isolated by library screening and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length 1,757-bp cDNA(More)
Glucose and other secretagogues are thought to activate a variety of protein kinases. This study was designed to unravel the sites of action of protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) in modulating insulin secretion. By using high time resolution measurements of membrane capacitance and flash photolysis of caged Ca(2+), we characterize three(More)
The crystal structure of a ternary complex of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT) heterodimer (p66/p51), a 19-base/18-base double-stranded DNA template-primer, and a monoclonal antibody Fab fragment has been determined at 3.0 A resolution. The four individual subdomains of RT that make up the polymerase domains of p66 and(More)
Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and -II have been cloned from a number of teleost species, but their cellular actions in fish are poorly defined. In this study, we show that both IGF-I and -II stimulated zebrafish embryonic cell proliferation and DNA synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas insulin had little mitogenic activity. Affinity(More)
Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A), also known as p21Cip1/Waf1, is a master downstream effector of tumor suppressors. In this study, we experimentally demonstrate through a high-throughput luciferase reporter screen that p21Cip1/Waf1 can be directly targeted by nearly 28 microRNAs (miRNAs). The results were further confirmed by a series of(More)
BACKGROUND HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) is a major target for anti-HIV drugs. A considerable amount of information about the structure of RT is available, both unliganded and in complex with template-primer or non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs). But significant conformational differences in the p66 polymerase domain among the unliganded structures(More)
The structure of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) complexed with a 19-mer/18-mer double-stranded DNA template-primer (dsDNA) and the Fab fragment of monoclonal antibody 28 (Fab28) has been refined at 2.8 A resolution. The structures of the polymerase active site and neighboring regions are described in detail and a(More)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-encoded X antigen (HBxAg) contributes to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A frequent characteristic of HCC is reduced or absent expression of the cell adhesion protein, E-cadherin, although it is not known whether HBxAg plays a role. To address this, the levels of E-cadherin were determined in HBxAg-positive and(More)