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IMPORTANCE Most patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and many with NMO spectrum disorder have autoantibodies against aquaporin-4 (AQP4-Abs), but recently, myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-Abs) have been found in some patients. Here, we showed that patients with NMO/NMOSD with MOG-Abs demonstrate differences when compared with patients(More)
Neuromyelitis optica and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders have been recently associated with the disease-specific autoantibody aquaporin-4, thought to be pathogenic. Identifying this antibody has allowed the clinical phenotype to be broadened. It is clear that some patients with similar clinical features do not have this antibody and may have a(More)
IMPORTANCE Aquaporin 4 antibody (AQP4-Ab)-negative patients with longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) behave differently from those with AQP4-Ab. Aquaporin 4 antibody-negative neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is rare when good assays are used. OBJECTIVE To assess if AQP4-Ab-negative patients with LETM share similar disease characteristics with(More)
BACKGROUND Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe autoimmune inflammatory disorder associated with considerable relapse-related disability. Immunosuppression is the mainstay of treatment but many patients do not tolerate first-line immunosuppressive agents, or experience ongoing relapses. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and pregnancy outcome. METHODS An international cohort of women with aquaporin-4 antibody-positive NMOSD and ≥1 pregnancy was studied retrospectively. Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate whether pregnancy after NMOSD onset was associated(More)
Olfactory dysfunction is common in multiple sclerosis (MS). Olfactory bulb and tract pathology in MS and other demyelinating diseases remain unexplored. A human autopsy cohort of pathologically confirmed cases encompassing the spectrum of demyelinating disease (MS; n = 17), neuromyelitis optica [(NMO); n = 3] and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis(More)
IMPORTANCE Patients with neuromyelitis optica who have aquaporin-4 antibodies are being identified and receiving immunosuppressant treatment earlier and more aggressively as a result of increasing awareness of the importance of preventing relapses responsible for the high morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. To our knowledge, opportunistic(More)
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