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The core promoter mutants of hepatitis B virus (HBV) emerge as the dominant viral population at the late HBeAg and the anti-HBe stages of HBV infection, with the A1762T/G1764A substitutions as the hotspot mutations. The double core promoter mutations were found by many investigators to moderately enhance viral genome replication and reduce hepatitis B e(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS We previously reported that hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein up regulated transcription of apolipoprotein C-IV (ApoC-IV, 10.7-fold increase), a member of the apolipoprotein family implicated in liver steatosis. Here, we identified host transcription factors regulating the ApoC-IV gene expression. METHODS Transcriptional regulators were(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein has been implicated in the development of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here we report that expression of HCV core protein by transient transfection increased cell proliferation, DNA synthesis, and cell cycle progression in Huh-7 cells, a human HCC-derived cell line. Culture supernatant from transfected cells(More)
Mutations in the S region of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope gene are associated with immune escape, occult infection, and resistance to therapy. We previously identified naturally occurring mutations in the S gene that alter HBV virion secretion. Here we used transcomplementation assay to confirm that the I110M, G119E, and R169P mutations in the S(More)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) contains three coterminal envelope proteins on the virion surface: large (L), middle (M), and small (S). The M and S proteins are also secreted as empty "subviral particles," which exceed virions by at least 1,000-fold. The S protein serves as the morphogenic factor for both types of particles, while the L protein is required only(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Most South African hepatitis B virus strains harbor point mutations immediately upstream of the precore AUG codon. The aim of this study was to determine their effect on hepatitis B e antigen expression. METHODS The hepatitis B virus DNA sequence around the precore region was determined from sera of 45 black South Africans. The South(More)
Frequent coinfection of hepatitis B virus genotype G with genotype A suggests that genotype G may require genotype A for replication or transmission. In this regard, genotype G is unique in having a 12-amino-acid extension in the core protein due to a 36-nucleotide insertion near the core gene translation initiation codon. The insertion alters base pairing(More)
Alteration in hepatitis B virus (HBV) secretion efficiency may have pathological consequences. Naturally occurring mutations that regulate virion secretion have not been defined. We recently identified HBV genomes displaying high (4B), substantially reduced (3.4), or negative (4C) virion secretion. In the present study, the underlying mutations were mapped.(More)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes a chronic infection in 350 million people worldwide and greatly increases the risk of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The majority of chronic HBV carriers live in Asia. HBV can be divided into eight genotypes with unique geographic distributions. Mutations accumulate during chronic infection or in response to(More)
The expression of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genes is regulated by a number of transcription factors. One such factor, Sp1, has two binding sites in the core promoter and one in its upstream regulatory element, which is also known as the ENII enhancer. In this study, we have analyzed the effects of these three Sp1 binding sites on the expression of HBV genes.(More)