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The core promoter mutants of hepatitis B virus (HBV) emerge as the dominant viral population at the late HBeAg and the anti-HBe stages of HBV infection, with the A1762T/G1764A substitutions as the hotspot mutations. The double core promoter mutations were found by many investigators to moderately enhance viral genome replication and reduce hepatitis B e(More)
Alteration in hepatitis B virus (HBV) secretion efficiency may have pathological consequences. Naturally occurring mutations that regulate virion secretion have not been defined. We recently identified HBV genomes displaying high (4B), substantially reduced (3.4), or negative (4C) virion secretion. In the present study, the underlying mutations were mapped.(More)
Virus infection is restricted by intracellular immune responses in host cells, and this is typically modulated by stimulation of cytokines. The cytokines and host factors that determine the host cell restriction against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are not well understood. We screened 36 cytokines and chemokines to determine which were able to reduce(More)
More than 300 million people worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Considering the very short generation time for a virus, and the high error rate associated with the reverse transcription step of HBV replication, decades of HBV infection are probably equivalent to million years of human evolution. The most important selective(More)
The pregenomic RNA directs replication of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome by serving both as the messenger for core protein and polymerase and as the genome precursor following its packaging into the core particle. RNA packaging is mediated by a stem-loop structure present at its 5' end designated the epsilon signal, which includes the core gene(More)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes a chronic infection in 350 million people worldwide and greatly increases the risk of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The majority of chronic HBV carriers live in Asia. HBV can be divided into eight genotypes with unique geographic distributions. Mutations accumulate during chronic infection or in response to(More)
The expression of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genes is regulated by a number of transcription factors. One such factor, Sp1, has two binding sites in the core promoter and one in its upstream regulatory element, which is also known as the ENII enhancer. In this study, we have analyzed the effects of these three Sp1 binding sites on the expression of HBV genes.(More)
We previously isolated AF20, a murine monoclonal antibody that recognizes a cell surface glycoprotein of approximately 90-110 kDa. The AF20 antigen is specifically expressed in human hepatoma and colon cancer cell lines, and thus could serve as a cancer biomarker. To uncover the molecular identity of the AF20 antigen, a combination of ion-exchange(More)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the prototype of hepatotropic DNA viruses (hepadnaviruses) infecting a wide range of human and non-human hosts. Previous studies with duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) identified duck carboxypeptidase D (dCPD) as a host specific binding partner for full-length large envelope protein, and p120 as a binding partner for several truncated(More)
Chronic infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype C is associated with a prolonged replicative phase and an increased risk of liver cancer, compared with genotype B infection. We previously found lower replication capacity but more efficient virion secretion by genotype C than genotype B isolates. Virion secretion requires interaction between core(More)
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