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The core promoter mutants of hepatitis B virus (HBV) emerge as the dominant viral population at the late HBeAg and the anti-HBe stages of HBV infection, with the A1762T/G1764A substitutions as the hotspot mutations. The double core promoter mutations were found by many investigators to moderately enhance viral genome replication and reduce hepatitis B e(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein has been implicated in the development of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here we report that expression of HCV core protein by transient transfection increased cell proliferation, DNA synthesis, and cell cycle progression in Huh-7 cells, a human HCC-derived cell line. Culture supernatant from transfected cells(More)
More than 300 million people worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Considering the very short generation time for a virus, and the high error rate associated with the reverse transcription step of HBV replication, decades of HBV infection are probably equivalent to million years of human evolution. The most important selective(More)
Mutations in the S region of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope gene are associated with immune escape, occult infection, and resistance to therapy. We previously identified naturally occurring mutations in the S gene that alter HBV virion secretion. Here we used transcomplementation assay to confirm that the I110M, G119E, and R169P mutations in the S(More)
Frequent coinfection of hepatitis B virus genotype G with genotype A suggests that genotype G may require genotype A for replication or transmission. In this regard, genotype G is unique in having a 12-amino-acid extension in the core protein due to a 36-nucleotide insertion near the core gene translation initiation codon. The insertion alters base pairing(More)
The pregenomic RNA directs replication of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome by serving both as the messenger for core protein and polymerase and as the genome precursor following its packaging into the core particle. RNA packaging is mediated by a stem-loop structure present at its 5' end designated the epsilon signal, which includes the core gene(More)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes a chronic infection in 350 million people worldwide and greatly increases the risk of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The majority of chronic HBV carriers live in Asia. HBV can be divided into eight genotypes with unique geographic distributions. Mutations accumulate during chronic infection or in response to(More)
Infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype C is associated with a prolonged viremic phase, delayed hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion, and an increased incidence of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma compared with genotype B infection. Genotype C is also associated with the more frequent emergence of core promoter mutations, which(More)
Sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) is an entry receptor for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and is regarded as one of the determinants that confer HBV permissiveness to host cells. However, how host factors regulate the ability of NTCP to support HBV infection is largely unknown. We aimed to identify the host signaling that regulated NTCP(More)
Hepatitis B virus immune escape mutants have been associated with vaccine failure and reinfection of grafted liver despite immune prophylaxis, but their biological properties remain largely unknown. Transfection of 20 such mutants in a human hepatoma cell line identified many with severe impairment in virion secretion, which can be rescued to various(More)