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Apoptotic stimuli have been shown to trigger lysosomal membrane permeability (LMP), leading to the release of cathepsins, which activate death signaling pathways in the cytosol. However, it is unknown whether this process is an initiating or amplifying event in apoptosis. In this study, we used fibroblasts and monocytes exposed to etoposide, ultraviolet(More)
The giant cytosolic protease tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPPII) has been implicated in the regulation of proliferation and survival of malignant cells, particularly lymphoma cells. To address its functions in normal cellular and systemic physiology we have generated TPPII-deficient mice. TPPII deficiency activates cell type-specific death programs, including(More)
The giant cytosolic protease tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPPII) was recently proposed to play a role in the DNA damage response. Shown were nuclear translocation of TPPII after gamma-irradiation, lack of radiation-induced p53 stabilization in TPPII-siRNA-treated cells, and complete tumor regression in mice after gamma-irradiation when combined with(More)
When NF-κB activation or protein synthesis is inhibited, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) can induce apoptosis through Bax- and Bak-mediated mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) leading to caspase-3 activation. Additionally, previous studies have implicated lysosomal membrane permeability (LMP) and formation of reactive oxygen species(More)
Tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPPII) is an oligopeptidase forming giant complexes in the cytosol that have high exo-, but also, endoproteolytic activity. Immunohistochemically, the complexes appear as distinct foci in the cytosol. In part controversial biochemical and functional studies have suggested that TPPII contributes, on the one hand, positively to Ag(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum-associated aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) is involved in the final processing of endogenous peptides presented by MHC class I molecules to CTLs. We generated ERAP1-deficient mice and analyzed cytotoxic responses upon infection with three viruses, including lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, which causes vigorous T cell activation and is(More)
Loss of plasticity-related gene 1 (PRG-1), which regulates synaptic phospholipid signaling, leads to hyperexcitability via increased glutamate release altering excitation/inhibition (E/I) balance in cortical networks. A recently reported SNP in prg-1 (R345T/mutPRG-1) affects ~5 million European and US citizens in a monoallelic variant. Our studies show that(More)
Caspases are the most important effectors of apoptosis, the major form of programmed cell death (PCD) in multicellular organisms. This is best reflected by the appearance of serious development defects in mice deficient for caspase-8, -9, and -3. Meanwhile, caspase-independent PCD, mediated by other proteases or signaling components has been described in(More)
Tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPPII) is a giant cytosolic protease. Previous protease inhibitor, overexpression and siRNA studies suggested that TPPII is important for viability and proliferation of tumor cells, and for their ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage response. The possibility that TPPII could be targeted for tumor therapy prompted us to study its(More)
Undoubtedly, caspases are the major driving force for apoptosis execution and mechanisms of their activation and inhibition have been largely unveiled. Recent progress has been made with regard to the exact intracellular ordering of caspases, monitoring their activities in vivo and unveiling their substrate degradomes. Moreover, non-caspase proteases seem(More)