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Although forest edges have been studied extensively as an important consequence of fragmentation, a unifying theory of edge influence has yet to be developed. Our objective was to take steps toward the development of such a theory by (1) synthesizing the current knowledge of patterns of forest structure and composition at anthropogenically created forest(More)
Forest managers need a comprehensive scientific understanding of natural stand development processes when designing silvicultural systems that integrate ecological and economic objectives, including a better appreciation of the nature of disturbance regimes and the biological legacies, such as live trees, snags, and logs, that they leave behind. Most(More)
Forest edges created by dispersed-patch clear-cutting have become a conspicuous landscape feature in western North America, but the effects of edge on forest structure and function are still poorly understood. In this paper we describe responses of stocking density, growth, mortality, and regeneration for three conifer species from the clear-cut edge into(More)
Eddy-covariance and biometeorological methods show significant net annual carbon uptake in an old-growth Douglas-fir forest in southwestern Washington, USA. These results contrast with previous assumptions that old-growth forest ecosystems are in carbon equilibrium. The basis for differences between conventional biomass-based carbon sequestration estimates(More)
Aboveground biomass (AGB; Mg/ha) is defined in this study as a biomass of growing stock trees greater than 2.5 cm in diameter at breast height (dbh) for stands N5 years and all trees taller than 1.3 m for stands b5 years. Although AGB is an important variable for evaluating ecosystem function and structure across the landscape, such estimates are difficult(More)
More than half of the solar energy absorbed by land surfaces is currently used to evaporate water. Climate change is expected to intensify the hydrological cycle and to alter evapotranspiration, with implications for ecosystem services and feedback to regional and global climate. Evapotranspiration changes may already be under way, but direct observational(More)
Martin Jung, Markus Reichstein, Hank A. Margolis, Alessandro Cescatti, Andrew D. Richardson, M. Altaf Arain, Almut Arneth, Christian Bernhofer, Damien Bonal, Jiquan Chen, Damiano Gianelle, Nadine Gobron, Gerald Kiely, Werner Kutsch, Gitta Lasslop, Beverly E. Law, Anders Lindroth, Lutz Merbold, Leonardo Montagnani, Eddy J. Moors, Dario Papale, Matteo(More)
Kevin Schaefer, Christopher R. Schwalm, Chris Williams, M. Altaf Arain, Alan Barr, Jing M. Chen, Kenneth J. Davis, Dimitre Dimitrov, Timothy W. Hilton, David Y. Hollinger, Elyn Humphreys, Benjamin Poulter, Brett M. Raczka, Andrew D. Richardson, Alok Sahoo, Peter Thornton, Rodrigo Vargas, Hans Verbeeck, Ryan Anderson, Ian Baker, T. Andrew Black, Paul(More)
The age-dependent variability of ecosystem carbon (C) fluxes was assessed by measuring the net ecosystem exchange of C (NEE) in five managed forest stands in northern Wisconsin, USA. The study sites ranged in age from 3-year-old clearcut to mature stands (65 years). All stands, except the clearcut, accumulated C over the study period from May to October(More)
a College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China b U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota 57198, USA c Geographic Information Science Center of Excellence, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota 57007, USA d(More)