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Spadefoot toad species display extreme variation in larval period duration, due in part to evolution of thyroid hormone (TH) physiology. Specifically, desert species with short larval periods have higher tail tissue content of TH and exhibit increased responsiveness to TH. To address the molecular basis of larval period differences, we examined TH receptor(More)
Thyroid hormone (TH) receptor (TR) expression begins early in development in all vertebrates when circulating TH levels are absent or minimal, yet few developmental roles for unliganded TRs have been established. Unliganded TRs are expected to repress TH-response genes, increase tissue responsivity to TH, and regulate the timing of developmental events.(More)
The ability to derive functional thyroid follicular cells from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) would provide potential therapeutic benefit for patients with congenital or post-surgical hypothyroidism. Furthermore, understanding the process by which thyroid follicular cells develop will also provide great insight into(More)
The clinical importance of anterior foregut endoderm (AFE) derivatives, such as thyrocytes, has led to intense research efforts for their derivation through directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). Here, we identify transient overexpression of the transcription factor (TF) NKX2-1 as a powerful inductive signal for the robust derivation of(More)
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