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Thyroid hormone (TH) receptor (TR) expression begins early in development in all vertebrates when circulating TH levels are absent or minimal, yet few developmental roles for unliganded TRs have been established. Unliganded TRs are expected to repress TH-response genes, increase tissue responsivity to TH, and regulate the timing of developmental events.(More)
Differential tissue sensitivity/responsivity to hormones can explain developmental asynchrony among hormone-dependent events despite equivalent exposure of each tissue to circulating hormone levels. A dramatic vertebrate example is during frog metamorphosis, where transformation of the hind limb, brain, intestine, liver, and tail are completely dependent on(More)
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an essential role in preventing autoimmunity. Mutations in the forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3) gene, which encodes a transcription factor critical for Treg function, result in a severe autoimmune disorder and the production of various autoantibodies in mice and in IPEX (immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy,(More)
Glutamate is an endogenous excitatory neurotransmitter. At high concentrations, it is neurotoxic and contributes to the development of certain neurodegenerative diseases. There is considerable controversy in the literature with regard to whether glutamate-induced cell death in cultured HT22 cells (an immortalized mouse hippocampal cell line) is apoptosis,(More)
A wealth of data implicates that ErbB receptors have essential roles in tumor development. Probiotic bacteria are known to exert an anticancer activity in animal studies. Bacillus polyfermenticus (B.P.), a probiotic bacterium, has been clinically used for a variety of gastrointestinal disorders in East Asia. Here, we investigated the effect of B.P. on the(More)
Spadefoot toad species display extreme variation in larval period duration, due in part to evolution of thyroid hormone (TH) physiology. Specifically, desert species with short larval periods have higher tail tissue content of TH and exhibit increased responsiveness to TH. To address the molecular basis of larval period differences, we examined TH receptor(More)
During development in all vertebrates, thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are expressed before as well as during and after the peak in plasma thyroid hormone (TH) levels. Previously, we established a role for unliganded TRα in gene repression and developmental timing using tadpoles of TRα knockout (TRαKO) frogs. Here, we examined the role of liganded TRα on(More)
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