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Preclinical studies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates have typically shown post-infection virological control, but protection against acquisition of infection has previously only been reported against neutralization-sensitive virus challenges. Here we demonstrate vaccine protection against acquisition of fully heterologous,(More)
The global diversity of HIV-1 represents a critical challenge facing HIV-1 vaccine development. HIV-1 mosaic antigens are bioinformatically optimized immunogens designed for improved coverage of HIV-1 diversity. However, the protective efficacy of such global HIV-1 vaccine antigens has not previously been evaluated. Here, we demonstrate the capacity of(More)
The viral reservoir represents a critical challenge for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) eradication strategies. However, it remains unclear when and where the viral reservoir is seeded during acute infection and the extent to which it is susceptible to early antiretroviral therapy (ART). Here we show that the viral reservoir is seeded rapidly(More)
Preclinical studies of viral vector-based HIV-1 vaccine candidates have previously shown partial protection against neutralization-resistant virus challenges in rhesus monkeys. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of adenovirus serotype 26 (Ad26) vector priming followed by purified envelope (Env) glycoprotein boosting. Rhesus monkeys primed(More)
The currently used smallpox vaccine is associated with a high incidence of adverse events, and there is a serious need for a safe and effective alternative vaccine. Here, we carried out a longitudinal evaluation of vaccinia virus-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells in smallpox-vaccinated individuals by using a highly sensitive intracellular cytokine staining(More)
A common viral immune evasion strategy involves mutating viral surface proteins in order to evade host neutralizing antibodies. Such immune evasion tactics have not previously been intentionally applied to the development of novel viral gene delivery vectors that overcome the critical problem of anti-vector immunity. Recombinant, replication-incompetent(More)
A recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5) vector-based vaccine for HIV-1 has recently failed in a phase 2b efficacy study in humans. Consistent with these results, preclinical studies have demonstrated that rAd5 vectors expressing simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag failed to reduce peak or setpoint viral loads after SIV challenge of rhesus monkeys(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific monoclonal antibodies with extraordinary potency and breadth have recently been described. In humanized mice, combinations of monoclonal antibodies have been shown to suppress viraemia, but the therapeutic potential of these monoclonal antibodies has not yet been evaluated in primates with an intact(More)
Recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5) vaccine vectors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and other pathogens have been shown to elicit antigen-specific cellular immune responses. Rare serotype rAd vectors have also been constructed to circumvent preexisting anti-Ad5 immunity and to facilitate the development of novel heterologous rAd(More)
Generating broad cellular immune responses against a diversity of viral epitopes is a major goal of current vaccine strategies for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and other pathogens. Virus-specific CD8(+) T-lymphocyte responses, however, are often highly focused on a very limited number of immunodominant epitopes. For an HIV-1 vaccine, the(More)