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During the extended clinically latent period associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection the virus itself is far from latent. This phase of infection generally comes to an end with the development of symptomatic illness. Understanding the factors affecting disease progression can aid treatment commencement and therapeutic monitoring(More)
BACKGROUND We previously reported similar AIDS-free survival at 3 years in children who were >1 year old initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) and randomized to early versus deferred ART in the Pediatric Randomized to Early versus Deferred Initiation in Cambodia and Thailand (PREDICT) study. We now report neurodevelopmental outcomes. METHODS Two hundred(More)
BACKGROUND Understanding the earliest central nervous system (CNS) events during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is crucial to knowledge of neuropathogenesis, but these have not previously been described in humans. METHODS Twenty individuals who had acute HIV infection (Fiebig stages I-IV), with average 15 days after exposure, underwent(More)
OBJECTIVE Single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can be used to monitor changes in brain inflammation and neuronal integrity associated with HIV infection and its treatments. We used MRS to measure brain changes during the first weeks following HIV infection and in response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS Brain metabolite(More)
OBJECTIVES The extent to which highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era cognitive disorders are due to active processes, incomplete clearance of reservoirs, or comorbidities is controversial. This study aimed to determine if immunologic and virologic factors influence cognition after first-time HAART in Thai individuals with HIV-associated dementia(More)
The World Health Organization guideline recommends informing children of their HIV status between the ages of 6-12 years. Primary caregivers of perinatal HIV-infected Thai children ≥6 years were interviewed in order to assess the HIV status disclosure rate. In addition, pill counts of antiretroviral therapy (ART) were performed every three months. CD4 and(More)
OBJECTIVES Cognitive impairment remains frequent in HIV, despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Leading theories implicate peripheral monocyte HIV DNA reservoirs as a mechanism for spread of the virus to the brain. These reservoirs remain present despite cART. The objective of this study was to determine if the level of HIV DNA in CD14(+)(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The long-lived viral reservoir is a major obstacle to achieving a cure for HIV. Therapeutic strategies, such as early antiretroviral therapy (ART), may be a prerequisite to achieving long-term control of viral replication upon ART withdrawal. RECENT FINDINGS HIV persistence is established early in acute HIV infection (AHI) with infection(More)
OBJECTIVES Distal leg epidermal nerve fibre density (ENFD) is a validated predictor of small unmyelinated nerve fibre damage and neuropathy risk in HIV infection. As pre-existing damage may increase the risk of neuropathy following antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, particularly when the regimen contains stavudine (d4T), we assessed the relationship between ENFD(More)
Quality of life (QOL) is an important antiretroviral treatment (ART) outcome. We compared QOL among 299 Thai and Cambodian children ages 1-12 years-old, CD4 15-24% randomized to early (ART at week 0, N=149) versus deferred groups (ART when at CD4 <15%, N=150) and also compared with QOL data from age-matched healthy controls (N=275). Primary caregivers(More)