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Sperm and eggs carry distinctive epigenetic modifications that are adjusted by reprogramming after fertilization. The paternal genome in a zygote undergoes active DNA demethylation before the first mitosis. The biological significance and mechanisms of this paternal epigenome remodelling have remained unclear. Here we report that, within mouse zygotes,(More)
BACKGROUND The skin is responsible for forming a variety of epidermal structures that differ amongst vertebrates. In each case the specific structure (for example scale, feather or hair) arises from an epidermal placode as a result of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions with the underlying dermal mesenchyme. Expression of members of the Wnt, Hedgehog and(More)
PURPOSE We aim to examine miR-21 expression in tongue squamous cell carcinomas (TSCC) and correlate it with patient clinical status, and to investigate its contribution to TSCC cell growth, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN MicroRNA profiling was done in 10 cases of TSCC with microarray. MiR-21 overexpression was quantitated with(More)
1. International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Virus taxonomy 2008 [cited 2009 Feb 23]. Available from http:// www.ictvonline.org/virusTaxonomy. asp?version=2008 2. Yamashita T, Kobayashi S, Sakae K, Nakata S, Chiba S, Ishihara Y, et al. Isolation of cytopathic small round viruses with BS-C-1 cells from patients with gastroenteritis. J Infect Dis.(More)
The genus bocavirus includes bovine parvovirus (BPV), minute virus of canines (MVC), and a group of human bocaviruses (HBoV1-4). Using sequence-independent single primer amplification (SISPA), a novel bocavirus group was discovered with high prevalence (12.59%) in piglet stool samples. Two nearly full-length genome sequences were obtained, which were(More)
The CRISPR-Cas9 system has been employed to generate mutant alleles in a range of different organisms. However, so far there have not been reports of use of this system for efficient correction of a genetic disease. Here we show that mice with a dominant mutation in Crygc gene that causes cataracts could be rescued by coinjection into zygotes of Cas9 mRNA(More)
The low efficiency of reprogramming and genomic integration of virus vectors obscure the potential application of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells; therefore, identification of chemicals and cooperative factors that may improve the generation of iPS cells will be of great value. Moreover, the cellular mechanisms that limit the reprogramming efficiency(More)
Self-renewal and pluripotency are hallmarks of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, the signaling pathways that trigger their transition from self-renewal to differentiation remain elusive. Here, we report that calcineurin-NFAT signaling is both necessary and sufficient to switch ESCs from an undifferentiated state to lineage-specific cells and that the(More)
Somatic cell nuclei of giant pandas can dedifferentiate in enucleated rabbit ooplasm, and the reconstructed eggs can develop to blastocysts. In order to observe whether these interspecies cloned embryos can implant in the uterus of an animal other than the panda, we transferred approximately 2300 panda-rabbit cloned embryos into 100 synchronized rabbit(More)
Of the approximately 1,000 odorant receptor (OR) genes in the mouse genome, an olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) is thought to express one gene, from one allele. This is reminiscent of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genes, which undergo DNA rearrangements in lymphocytes. Here, we test the hypothesis that OR gene choice is controlled by DNA rearrangements(More)