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BACKGROUND Plant protoplasts, a proven physiological and versatile cell system, are widely used in high-throughput analysis and functional characterization of genes. Green protoplasts have been successfully used in investigations of plant signal transduction pathways related to hormones, metabolites and environmental challenges. In rice, protoplasts are(More)
Nicotiana alata has long been a model species for studying gametophytic self-incompatibility (SI) in Solanaceae. Genetically based SI systems are widespread in flowering plants and function to reduce homozygosity and avoid inbreeding depression. However, out-crossing is always unfulfillable for populations with few S-alleles, such as in cultivated clonal(More)
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