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Most low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses cause no or mild disease in avian species. Little is known about the mechanisms of host defence and the immune responses of avian influenza-infected birds. This study showed that chicken macrophages are susceptible to infection with LPAI H9N2 and H6N2 viruses and that infection led to apoptosis. In H9N2(More)
Agent-based traffic simulation has emerged as an efficient tool to investigate traffic phenomenon. However, the main problem is how to reproduce realistic patterns of traffic flow at both macroscopic and microscopic levels with restricted computational resources. In this paper, we present a multi-agent framework of single-lane traffic simulation. We focus(More)
We introduce a graphical framework for multiple instance learning (MIL) based on Markov networks. This framework can be used to model the traditional MIL definition as well as more general MIL definitions. Different levels of ambiguity – the portion of positive instances in a bag – can be explored in weakly supervised data. To train these models, we propose(More)
When avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are transmitted from their reservoir hosts (wild waterfowl and shorebirds) to domestic bird species, they undergo genetic changes that have been linked to higher virulence and broader host range. Common genetic AIV modifications in viral proteins of poultry isolates are deletions in the stalk region of the neuraminidase(More)
spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV) (H5N1) underlines the potential for global AIV movement through birds. The phylogenies of AIV genes from avian hosts usually separate into Eurasian and North American clades, reflecting limited bird migration between the hemispheres. However, mounting evidence that some H6 sequences from North America(More)
A new well-preserved basal therapsid skull from the Xidagou Formation, Middle Permian of China, is identified as Biseridens qilianicus. The following synapomorphies distinguish Biseridens as an anomodont and not an eotitanosuchian as previously described: short snout; dorsally elevated zygomatic arch and septomaxilla lacking elongated posterodorsal process(More)
Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Acari: Tetranychidae) is a worldwide polyphagous agricultural pest that has the title of resistance champion among arthropods. We reported previously the identification of the acaricidal compound β-sitosterol from Mentha piperita and Inula japonica. However, the acaricidal mechanism of β-sitosterol is unclear. Due to the limited(More)