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TolC is an outer membrane protein required for the export of virulence proteins and toxic compounds without a periplasmic intermediate. We show that TolC is an integral part of the translocator, interacting with inner membrane components, by demonstrating a need for TolC in protein export not only from intact cells but also from sphaeroplasts. To establish(More)
DNA phosphorothioate (PT) modifications, with one non-bridging phosphate oxygen replaced with sulfur, are widely but sporadically distributed in prokaryotic genomes. Short consensus sequences surround the modified linkage in each strain, although each site is only partially modified. The mechanism that maintains this low-frequency modification status is(More)
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