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Glutamate signaling in the nucleus accumbens influences reinstatement of previously extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior in rats. Whether or not region specific glutamate signaling in the nucleus accumbens contributes to reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior is not known. We investigated whether directly stimulating ionotropic glutamate receptors(More)
Fischer 344 (F344) and Lewis (LEW) rats differ in cocaine self-administration behaviors. Whether or not these inbred strains of rats differ in pharmacological reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine if inbred strains of rats demonstrate differences in(More)
Fischer 344 (F344) and Lewis (LEW) rats differ in a number of self-administration behaviors. Whether or not these strains differ in methamphetamine-primed reinstatement of extinguished responding is unknown. F344 and LEW rats were trained to self-administer intravenous (i.v.) methamphetamine (0.06 mg/kg) during daily 2-h limited access sessions for 14 days.(More)
Retinoic acid (RA) plays a critical role in embryonic development and function maintenance of vital organs in adult. Subtle regulation of RA signaling is relied on spatio-temporal control of RA synthesis and catabolism. In this study, we investigated the expression patterns of RA synthetases RALDHs and metabolic enzymes CYP26s in multiple human tissues, and(More)
Although some central effects of citral have been reported, cognitive effects on spatial memory have not been investigated. The evidence showed that citral can regulate the synthesis of retinoic acid (RA), which exerts a vital function in the development and maintenance of spatial memory. In this study, we applied Morris water maze to test the effect of(More)
Although some central effects of triadimefon, a triazole fungicide, have been reported, its effects on spatial memory have not been examined. In this study, we used the Morris water maze to study the effect of triadimefon on spatial learning and memory in rats. To elucidate the mechanism of this effect, we also measured the retinoic acid concentration in(More)
In order to evaluate the feasibility of application of precision cut liver slice(PCLS) to the study of the effect of glutathione on cadmium chloride hepatotoxicity, slices were cultured with CdCl2 and GSH. Slices activity and drug metabolic function was estimated by assay of slice viability, NO secretion, and phase I and phase II enzyme activity. Results(More)
The continuous growth of mouse incisors depends on epithelial stem cells (SCs) residing in the SC niche, called labial cervical loop (LaCL). The homeostasis of the SCs is subtly regulated by complex signaling networks. In this study, we focus on retinoic acid (RA), a derivative of Vitamin A and a known pivotal signaling molecule in controlling the functions(More)
Fischer 344 (F344) and Lewis (LEW) rats differ in methamphetamine self-administration (SA) and methamphetamine-induced reinstatement of previously extinguished behavior. We sought to determine whether genetic background also influences methamphetamine reinforcement efficacy, conditioned reinstatement, and methamphetamine-primed reinstatement of responding(More)
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