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Ion-mediated changes in xylem hydraulic resistance are hypothesized to result from hydrogel like properties of pectins located in the bordered pit membranes separating adjacent xylem vessels. Although the kinetics of the ion-mediated changes in hydraulic resistance are consistent with the swelling/deswelling behavior of pectins, there is no direct evidence(More)
This paper presents a microchip-based system for collecting kinetic time-based information on protein refolding and unfolding. Dynamic protein conformational change pathways were studied in microchannel flow using a microfluidic device. We present a protein-conserving approach for quantifying refolding by dynamically varying the concentration of the(More)
We have fabricated lab-on-a-chip systems with microchannels separated by integrated membranes allowing for osmotically driven microflows. We have investigated these flows experimentally by studying the dynamics and structure of the front of a sugar solution travelling in 200 microm wide and 50-200 microm deep microchannels. We find that the sugar front(More)
This paper presents a microchip-based system for measuring concentrations and dynamic conformational changes in proteins without any use of extrinsic fluorescent labeling. The microchannel flow of protein molecules was integrated with an ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV-LED, lambda ex = 295 nm) and a photodetector (lambda em = 330 nm). The intrinsic(More)
Polymeric particles are used in a variety of applications such as systems for controlled chemical release, [1–9] optical materials , [10, 11] chromatographic media, [12] and various biological applications. [13–16] The physical and chemical properties of polymeric particles, such as their shape, size, porosity, surface charge, and hydrophilicity or(More)
Nanostructures (vesicles, micelles, bilayers) are important in nanomedicine and biochemical processes. They are agents for encapsulation and eventual release of drugs, flavors, and fragrances. The structural transition from micelles to vesicles through disk-like intermediate states has been demonstrated previously. Here, we disclose a new route for the(More)
We elucidate mechanisms for colloidal gelation of attractive nanoemulsions depending on the volume fraction (ϕ) of the colloid. Combining detailed neutron scattering, cryo-transmission electron microscopy and rheological measurements, we demonstrate that gelation proceeds by either of two distinct pathways. For ϕ sufficiently lower than 0.23, gels exhibit(More)
Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) is a powerful method to image native state morphologies of nanoscale soft and hard objects suspended in solvents. Sample preparation is a critical step toward producing images at length and time scales of interest. We demonstrate a nearly shear-free sample thinning method which simultaneously allows(More)
Intrinsic viscosity provides insight to molecular structure and interactions in solution. A new microchip method is described for fast and accurate measurements of viscosity and intrinsic viscosity of polymer and biopolymer solutions. Polymer samples are diluted with solvent in the microfluidic chip by imposing pressure gradients across the channel network.(More)
The effect of three-dimensional confinement on the size and morphology of a vesicular surfactant mesophase obtained by mixing micellar solutions of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid has been studied using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The confined spaces were generated by the random close packing of polystyrene beads of(More)