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BACKGROUND AND AIMS Adjustments for under-reporting in alcohol surveys have been used in epidemiological and policy studies which assume that all drinkers underestimate their consumption equally. This study aims to describe a method of estimating how under-reporting of alcohol consumption might vary by age, gender and consumption level. METHOD The(More)
AIM To (i) compare the Yesterday method with other methods of assessing alcohol use applied in the 2004 Australian National Drug Strategy Household Survey (NDSHS) in terms of extent of under-reporting of actual consumption assessed from sales data; and (ii) illustrate applications of the Yesterday method as a means of variously measuring the size of an(More)
The paper introduces three texture analysis methods of ultrasonic images based on spatial domain method. Feature parameters, including mean, variance, contrast, homogeneity, angular second moment and entropy, are achieved from gray histogram statistic, gray level difference statistic (GLDS), gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). Then the above statistical(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess the contribution of road rage victimization and perpetration to collision involvement. METHODS The relationship between self-reported collision involvement and road rage victimization and perpetration was examined, based on telephone interviews with a representative sample of 4897 Ontario adult drivers interviewed between 2002 and(More)
OBJECTIVES We report impacts on alcohol consumption following new and increased minimum alcohol prices in Saskatchewan, Canada. METHODS We conducted autoregressive integrated moving average time series analyses of alcohol sales and price data from the Saskatchewan government alcohol monopoly for 26 periods before and 26 periods after the intervention. (More)
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS This proposed study was to assess non-response bias in the 2004 Canadian Addictions Survey (CAS). DESIGN AND METHODS Two approaches were used to assess non-response bias in the CAS which had a response rate of only 47%. First, the CAS sample characteristics were compared with the 2002 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS, response(More)
AIMS To study relationships between rates of alcohol-related deaths and (i) the density of liquor outlets and (ii) the proportion of liquor stores owned privately in British Columbia (BC) during a period of rapid increase in private stores. DESIGN Multi-level regression analyses assessed the relationship between population rates of private liquor stores(More)
AIMS Minimum alcohol prices in British Columbia have been adjusted intermittently over the past 20 years. The present study estimates impacts of these adjustments on alcohol consumption. DESIGN Time-series and longitudinal models of aggregate alcohol consumption with price and other economic data as independent variables. SETTING British Columbia (BC),(More)
AIM To investigate relationships between periodic increases in minimum alcohol prices, changing densities of liquor stores and alcohol-attributable (AA) deaths in British Columbia, Canada. DESIGN Cross-section (16 geographic areas) versus time-series (32 annual quarters) panel analyses were conducted with AA deaths as dependent variables and price, outlet(More)
BACKGROUND Glucocorticoids increase the risk of developing critical disease from viral infections. However, primary care practitioners in China use them as antipyretics, potentially exposing hundreds of millions to this risk. METHODS We enrolled all patients with confirmed pandemic influenza A (pH1N1) virus infection aged ≥3 years with available medical(More)