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The chromosome 9p21 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD) locus contains one of the last major unidentified autosomal-dominant genes underlying these common neurodegenerative diseases. We have previously shown that a founder haplotype, covering the MOBKL2b, IFNK, and C9ORF72 genes, is present in the majority of cases linked to this(More)
Using exome sequencing, we identified a p.R191Q amino acid change in the valosin-containing protein (VCP) gene in an Italian family with autosomal dominantly inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Mutations in VCP have previously been identified in families with Inclusion Body Myopathy, Paget disease, and Frontotemporal Dementia (IBMPFD). Screening(More)
α-Synuclein (α-syn) plays a prominent role in the degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, only a few studies on α-syn have been performed in the mDA neurons in vivo, which may be attributed to a lack of α-syn transgenic mice that develop PD-like severe degeneration of mDA neurons. To gain mechanistic(More)
Recent genome-wide association studies indicate that a simple alteration of Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene expression may contribute to the etiology of sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the expression and regulation of LRRK2 protein in the sporadic PD brains remain to be determined. Here, we found that the expression of LRRK2 protein(More)
To test whether the synucleinopathies Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy (MSA) share a common genetic etiology, we performed a candidate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) association study of the 384 most associated SNPs in a genome-wide association study of Parkinson's disease in 413 MSA cases and 3,974 control subjects. The 10 most(More)
Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are a common cause of familial and apparently sporadic Parkinson disease. LRRK2 is a multidomain protein kinase with autophosphorylation activity. It has previously been shown that the kinase activity of LRRK2 is required for neuronal toxicity, suggesting that understanding the mechanism of kinase activation(More)
BACKGROUND Dystonia and parkinsonism may present as part of the same genetic disorder. Identification of the genetic mutations that underlie these diseases may help to shed light on the aetiological processes involved. METHODS We identified two unrelated families with members with an apparent autosomal recessive, novel, young-onset, generalised form of(More)
Mutations in PfCRT (Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistant transporter), particularly the substitution at amino acid position 76, confer chloroquine (CQ) resistance in P. falciparum. Point mutations in the homolog of the mammalian multidrug resistance gene (pfmdr1) can also modulate the levels of CQ response. Moreover, parasites with the same pfcrt and(More)
Autosomal recessive parkinsonism genes contribute to maintenance of mitochondrial function. Two of these, PINK1 and parkin, act in a pathway promoting autophagic removal of depolarized mitochondria. Although recruitment of parkin to mitochondria is PINK1-dependent, additional components necessary for signaling are unclear. We performed a screen for(More)
Mutations in alpha-synuclein and Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are linked to autosomal dominant forms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, little is known about any potential pathophysiological interplay between these two PD-related genes. Here we show in transgenic mice that although overexpression of LRRK2 alone did not cause neurodegeneration,(More)