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The dominance style concept has proven useful for understanding covariation patterns in relationship qualities, particularly among macaques. However, the dominance styles of many macaques, including Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana), have not been examined in detail. We describe patterns of bidirectionality of aggression, postconflict affiliation and kin(More)
OBJECTIVE A multicenter, controlled trial showed that early blockade of the renin-angiotensin system in patients with type 1 diabetes and normoalbuminuria did not retard the progression of nephropathy, suggesting that other mechanism(s) are involved in the pathogenesis of early diabetic nephropathy (diabetic nephropathy). We have previously demonstrated(More)
TGF-beta is a key mediator in renal fibrosis. Kidney-targeted gene therapy with anti-TGF-beta strategies is expected to have therapeutic potential, but this has been hampered by concerns over the safety and practicability of viral vectors and the inefficiency of nonviral transfection techniques. The present study explored the potential role of TGF-beta/Smad(More)
Previous studies have reported that uric acid stimulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation in vitro. We hypothesized that uric acid may also have direct proinflammatory effects on VSMCs. Crystal- and endotoxin-free uric acid was found to increase VSMC monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner,(More)
While it is thought that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) act by stimulating transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta to mediate diabetic injury, we report that AGEs can activate TGF-beta signaling, Smads, and mediate diabetic scarring directly and independently of TGF-beta. AGEs activate Smad2/3 in renal and vascular cells at 5 min, peaking over 15-30(More)
Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of chronic renal failure. Myofibroblasts play a major role in the synthesis and secretion of extracellular matrix in diabetic renal fibrosis. Increasing evidence suggests that endothelial cells may undergo endothelial-myofibroblast transition under physiological and pathophysiological circumstances. Therefore, this(More)
Calcium phosphate (CaP) based approaches remain an attractive option for delivering plasmid DNA (pDNA) into cultured cells. However, despite their appeal, current synthesis methodologies typically yield lower, less consistent transfection efficiencies when compared to viral approaches. Therefore, we report here a novel method to consistently synthesize(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify the immediate economic impact of maternal death on rural Chinese households. METHODS Results are reported from a study that matched 195 households who had suffered a maternal death to 384 households that experienced a childbirth without maternal death in rural areas of three provinces in China, using quantitative questionnaire to(More)
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been shown to play a role in tubular epithelial-myofibroblast transdifferentiation (TEMT) in diabetic nephropathy, but the intracellular signaling pathway remains unknown. We report here that AGEs signal through the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) to induce TEMT, as determined by de novo expression of a mesenchymal(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) promotes tissue fibrosis through the Smad3 signaling pathway. While phosphorylation is known to regulate Smad3 function, recent in vitro studies have suggested that acetylation may also regulate Smad3 function. This study investigated Smad3 acetylation in renal fibrosis. TGF-beta1 stimulation of renal fibroblasts(More)