Learn More
Clostridium botulinum type B strain produces two forms of progenitor toxin, 16S and 12S. The 12S toxin is formed by association of a neurotoxin (NTX) and a non-toxic non-haemagglutinin (NTNH), and the 16S toxin is formed by conjugation of the 12S toxin with a haemagglutinin (HA). HA consists of four subcomponents designated HA1, HA2, HA3a and HA3b. When(More)
pRb and p53 are two major tumor suppressors. Here, we found that p53 activates expression of Pirh2 and KPC1, two of the three ubiquitin ligases for p27. Loss of p53 in the absence of Skp2, the third ubiquitin ligase for p27, shrinks the cellular pool of p27 ubiquitin ligases to accumulate p27 protein. In the absence of pRb and p53, p27 was unable to inhibit(More)
One mechanism of tumour suppression by pRb is repressing E2F1. Hence, E2f1 deletion diminishes tumorigenesis following Rb1 loss. However, E2F1 promotes both proliferation and apoptosis. It therefore remains unclear how de-repressed E2F1 promotes tumorigenesis. Another mechanism of pRb function is repressing Skp2 to elevate p27 to arrest proliferation.(More)
Immune responses against heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) of pathogen-origin are thought to be defensive events which, due to molecular mimicry, misdirect to a human counterpart. Therefore, atherosclerosis may be serologically predicted by anti-HSP60 antibodies (Abs). In the present study, we analyzed the clinical prevalence of the serum IgG Abs against(More)
p27Kip1 (p27) is an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases. Inhibiting p27 protein degradation is an actively developing cancer therapy strategy. One focus has been to identify small molecule inhibitors to block recruitment of Thr-187-phosphorylated p27 (p27T187p) to SCF(Skp2/Cks1) ubiquitin ligase. Since phosphorylation of Thr-187 is required for this(More)
A single hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) is capable of reconstituting hematopoiesis and maintaining homeostasis by balancing self-renewal and cell differentiation. The mechanisms of HSC division balance, however, are not yet defined. Here we demonstrate, by characterizing at the single-cell level a purified and minimally heterogeneous murine Tie2+ HSC(More)
Tumor suppressor pRb represses Skp2, a substrate-recruiting subunit of the SCF(Skp2) ubiquitin ligase. Rb1(+/-) mice incur "two-hit" pituitary tumorigenesis; Skp2(-/-);Rb1(+/-) mice do not. Rb1(-/-) embryos die on embryonic day (E) 14.5-15.5. Here, we report that Skp2(-/-);Rb1(-/-) embryos died on E11.5, establishing an organismal level synthetic lethal(More)
  • 1