Jinhong Zhang

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Alpha-synuclein gene (SNCA) polymorphisms have been associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). A recently published genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis from the USA and Europe found a strong association between SNCA rs356219 and PD. Considering the population-specific heterogeneity, we investigated the role of SNCA rs356219 as PD(More)
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at four loci (SNCA, PARK16, LRRK2, BST1) that can modulate the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). The strength of these associations has yet to be clarified in Mainland China. Ethnic specific effect is an important consideration in GWAS analysis. Using a(More)
Genome-wide association studies of Parkinson’s disease (PD) have recently identified a new susceptibility locus GAK (PARK17) (rs1564282 variant) in subjects of European ancestry. Its role in other races is still unclear. The potential differences of the clinical characteristics between carriers and non-carriers have not been examined in detail. Using a(More)
Genetic variability of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) may be linked to Parkinson's disease (PD). Its role in ethnic Chinese population is still unclear. We examined the association between GSK3β variation and PD in a Han Chinese population from mainland China. Using a case-control methodology, we genotyped the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in(More)
It is clear that the current attempts at using algorithms to create artificial neural networks have had mixed success at best when it comes to creating large networks and/or complex behavior. This should not be unexpected, as creating an artificial brain is essentially a design problem. Human design ingenuity still surpasses computational design for most(More)
This paper presents DrawCompileEvolve, a web-based drawing tool which allows users to draw simple primitive shapes, group them together or define patterns in their groupings (e.g. symmetry, repetition). The user's vector drawing is then compiled into an indirectly encoded genetic representation, which can be evolved interactively, allowing the user to(More)
BACKGROUND A functional SNP (rs9347683) in the promoter region of the parkin gene had been implicated as a risk factor in older Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. METHODS Using a case-control methodology, we genotyped the SNP in the promoter region of the parkin gene to investigate their association with risk of PD and conducted a pooled analysis of(More)
Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene (LRRK2) are the most common causes of autosomal dominant and sporadic forms of Parkinson's disease (PD). The A419V variant has been suggested to be a potential risk variant but its role among Chinese is unclear. We genotyped LRRK2 A419V variant to investigate the association with risk of PD. A total of 1314(More)
BACKGROUND The first large-scale meta-analysis of published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) identified 5 new genetic loci (ACMSD, STK39, MCCC1/LAMP3, SYT11, and CCDC62/HIP1R). Very recently, a large-scale replication and heterogeneity study also reported that STK39 and CCDC62/HIP1R increased risk of PD in Asian and(More)
Recent several meta-analyses and certain case-control studies suggested that the Ras-like without CAAX 2 (RIT2) rs12456492 increased the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) in Asian and Caucasian populations. However, as so far, the association between RIT2 rs12456492 and PD is still controversial. We investigated genetic association of RIT2 rs12456492 with PD(More)