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Rainfall variability over the Amazon basin has often been linked to variations in Pacific sea surface temperature (SST), and in particular, to the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, only a fraction of Amazon rainfall variability can be explained by ENSO. Building upon the recent work of Zeng (Environ Res Lett 3:014002, 2008), here we provide(More)
The Amazon rain forest may undergo significant change in response to future climate change. To determine the likelihood and causes of such changes, the authors analyzed the output of 24 models from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) and a dynamic vegetation model, Vegetation–Global–Atmosphere–Soil (VEGAS),(More)
We use CMIP3 multi-model simulations to show how individual hydroclimatic changes will concur to determine even greater alterations of 21st century Mediterranean water cycle characteristics, with contrasting behavior over land and sea. By 2070–2099, the average of the models predicts a 20% decrease in land surface water availability and a 24% increase in(More)
1 Global-scale solar geoengineering is the deliberate modification of the climate system to 2 offset some amount of anthropogenic climate change by reducing the amount of incident solar 3 radiation at the surface. These changes to the planetary energy budget result in differential 4 regional climate effects. For the first time, we quantitatively evaluate(More)
Since the winter of 2013-2014, California has experienced its most severe drought in recorded history, causing statewide water stress, severe economic loss and an extraordinary increase in wildfires. Identifying the effects of global warming on regional water cycle extremes, such as the ongoing drought in California, remains a challenge. Here we analyse(More)
BACKGROUND In Korea, hypertension has become more prevalent with the Westernization of Korean diets and lack of exercise. This study aimed at investigating the associations between physical fitness variables and hypertension status in Korean women. METHODS The subjects were 9,216 women aged >20 years who visited a public health promotion center for(More)
Geoengineering via solar radiation management could affect agricultural productivity due to changes in temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation. To study rice and maize production changes in China, we used results from 10 climate models participating in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) G2 scenario to force the Decision(More)
In an approach termed the PER method, where the key input variables are observed precipitation P and runoff R and estimated evaporation, the authors apply the basin water budget equation to diagnose the long-term variability of the total terrestrial water storage (TWS). Unlike the typical offline land surface model estimate where only atmospheric variables(More)
[1] Using a 25-year hindcast experiment, we explore the possibility of seasonal-interannual prediction of terrestrial ecosystems and the global carbon cycle. This has been achieved using a prototype forecasting system in which the dynamic vegetation and terrestrial carbon cycle model VEGAS was forced with 15-member ensemble climate predictions generated by(More)
In the present study, we fabricated a hemoglobin/gold nanoparticle (Hb/GNP) heterolayer immobilized on the Au micro-gap to confirm H₂O₂ detection with a signal-enhancement effect. The hemoglobin which contained the heme group catalyzed the reduction of H₂O₂. To facilitate the electron transfer between hemoglobin and Au micro-gap electrode, a gold(More)