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BACKGROUND Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1alpha), a component of HIF-1, is expressed in human tumors and renders cells able to survive and grow under hypoxic (low-oxygen) conditions. YC-1, 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzylindazole, an agent developed for circulatory disorders that inhibits platelet aggregation and vascular contraction, inhibits(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder previously thought to be of primary neuronal origin, despite ubiquitous expression of mutant huntingtin (mHtt). We tested the hypothesis that mHtt expressed in astrocytes may contribute to the pathogenesis of HD. To better understand the contribution of astrocytes in HD in vivo, we developed a novel(More)
Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with neuronal loss in Huntington's disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disease caused by an abnormal polyglutamine expansion in huntingtin (Htt). However, the mechanisms linking mutant Htt and mitochondrial dysfunction in HD remain unknown. We identify an interaction between mutant Htt and the TIM23 mitochondrial(More)
Although a direct causative pathway from the gene mutation to the selective neostriatal neurodegeneration remains unclear in Huntington's disease (HD), one putative pathological mechanism reported to play a prominent role in the pathogenesis of this neurological disorder is mitochondrial dysfunction. We examined mitochondria in preferentially vulnerable(More)
In this paper, we propose a Bayesian network framework for explicitly modeling strokes and their relationships of characters. A character is modeled as a composition of stroke models, and a stroke as a composition of point models. A point is modeled with 2-D Gaussian distribution for its X –Y position. Relationships between points and strokes are modeled as(More)
correspondence or even impossible to be captured by cellular or in vivo experiments alone. Furthermore, it is difficult to design kinase perturbation experiments, because the kinome-wide selectivity and specificity of many kinase inhibitors is unknown 3,4. As a result, knowledge is lacking on which of the ~540 human kinases phosphorylate a given site: of(More)
Data cube is used as an OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing) model to implement multidimensional analyses in many fields of application. Computing a data cube requires a long sequence of basic operations and storage costs. Exponentially accumulating amounts of data have reached a magnitude that overwhelms the processing capacities of single computers. In(More)
Chromatin remodeling is tightly controlled under physiological conditions. Alterations in chromatin structure are involved in the pathogenesis of neuronal systems. We found that the monoallelic deletion of CREB binding protein (CBP) results in the induction of ERG-associated protein with SET domain (ESET) and increases trimethylation of histone H3 (K9) and(More)
In mice deficient in either lymphotoxin alpha (LT-alpha) or type I tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR-I), organized clusters of follicular dendritic cells (FDC) and germinal centers (GC) are absent from the spleen. We investigated the role of LT-alpha and TNFR-I in the establishment of spleen FDC and GC structure by using reciprocal bone marrow (BM)(More)