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Water is crucial to plant growth and development. Environmental water deficiency triggers an osmotic stress signalling cascade, which induces short-term cellular responses to reduce water loss and long-term responses to remodel the transcriptional network and physiological and developmental processes. Several signalling components that have been identified(More)
In plants, continuous formation of lateral roots (LRs) facilitates efficient exploration of the soil environment. Roots can maximize developmental capacity in variable environmental conditions through establishment of sites competent to form LRs. This LR prepattern is established by a periodic oscillation in gene expression near the root tip. The spatial(More)
Plants and animals produce modular developmental units in a periodic fashion. In plants, lateral roots form as repeating units along the root primary axis; however, the developmental mechanism regulating this process is unknown. We found that cyclic expression pulses of a reporter gene mark the position of future lateral roots by establishing prebranch(More)
—Nodes in a hexagonal network are placed at the vertices of a regular triangular tessellation, so that each node has up to six neighbors. The network is proposed as an alternative interconnection network to mesh connected computer (with nodes serving as processors) and is used also to model cellular networks where nodes are base stations. In this paper, we(More)
2.1 INTRODUCTION It has been known for over one hundred years that radio can be used to keep in touch with people on the move. However, wireless communications using radio were not popular until Bell Laboratories developed the cellular concept to reuse the radio frequency in the 1960s and 1970s [31]. In the past decade, cellular communications have(More)
Botnets become widespread in wired and wireless networks, whereas the relevant research is still in the initial stage. In this paper, a survey of botnets is provided. We first discuss fundamental concepts of botnets, including formation and exploitation, lifecycle, and two major kinds of topologies. Several related attacks, detection, tracing, and(More)
Zika virus (ZIKV) persists in the semen of male patients, a first for flavivirus infection. Here, we demonstrate that ZIKV can induce inflammation in the testis and epididymidis, but not in the prostate or seminal vesicle, and can lead to damaged testes after 60 days post-infection in mice. ZIKV induces innate immune responses in Leydig, Sertoli, and(More)
Neurotoxicity of amyloid β (Aβ) plays an important role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. In this study, we researched the potential protective effects of resistin against Aβ neurotoxicity in mouse Neuro2a (N2a) cells transfected with the Swedish amyloid precursor protein (Sw-APP) mutant and Presenilin exon 9 deletion mutant (N2a/D9), which(More)