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BACKGROUND MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNAs having large-scale regulatory effects on plant development and stress responses. Extensive studies of miRNAs have only been performed in a few model plants. Although miRNAs are proved to be involved in plant cold stress responses, little is known for winter-habit monocots. Brachypodium distachyon, with(More)
Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaud), commonly known as China grass, is a perennial bast fiber plant of the Urticaceae. In China, ramie farming, industry, and trade provide income for about five million people. Drought stress severely affects ramie stem growth and causes a dramatic decrease in ramie fiber production. There is a need to enhance ramie's tolerance(More)
Seed germination is regulated by endogenous hormonal cues and external environmental stimuli such as water, low temperature, and light. After germination, the young seedling must rapidly establish its root system and the photoautotrophic capability appropriate to its surrounding environment. Light and the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) both regulate seed(More)
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key step in development, wound healing, and cancer development. It involves cooperation of signaling pathways, such as transformation growth factor-β (TGF-β), Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), and WNT pathways. These signaling pathways crosstalk to each other and converge to key transcription factors (e.g., SNAIL1) to(More)
PURPOSE Both CD44 and CD133 were reported as putative markers for isolating colorectal cancer stem cells (CSC). It remains to be resolved if both of these markers are of functional importance for colorectal CSC. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN The expression of CD44 and CD133 in normal colonic tissues and primary colorectal cancer was assessed by immunohistochemistry(More)
More than 170 proteins are necessary for assembly of ribosomes in eukaryotes. However, cofactors that function with each of these proteins, substrates on which they act, and the precise functions of assembly factors--e.g., recruiting other molecules into preribosomes or triggering structural rearrangements of pre-rRNPs--remain mostly unknown. Here we(More)
The process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an essential type of cellular plasticity associated with a change from epithelial cells that function as a barrier consisting of a sheet of tightly connected cells to cells with properties of mesenchyme that are not attached to their neighbors and are highly motile. This phenotypic change occurs(More)
Active brassinosteroids (BRs), such as brassinolide (BL) and castasterone (CS), are growth-promoting plant hormones. An Arabidopsis cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP734A1, formerly CYP72B1), encoded by the BAS1 gene, inactivates BRs and modulates photomorphogenesis. BAS1 was identified as the overexpressed gene responsible for a dominant, BR-deficient(More)
A fluorescent off-on probe for H2S was exploited by coupling the azide-based strategy with the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) sensing mechanism, which exhibits a considerably high fluorescence enhancement (1150-fold), an extremely low detection limit (0.78 nM), and a relatively fast response time (3-10 min) as well as excellent(More)