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BACKGROUND MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNAs having large-scale regulatory effects on plant development and stress responses. Extensive studies of miRNAs have only been performed in a few model plants. Although miRNAs are proved to be involved in plant cold stress responses, little is known for winter-habit monocots. Brachypodium distachyon, with(More)
More than 170 proteins are necessary for assembly of ribosomes in eukaryotes. However, cofactors that function with each of these proteins, substrates on which they act, and the precise functions of assembly factors--e.g., recruiting other molecules into preribosomes or triggering structural rearrangements of pre-rRNPs--remain mostly unknown. Here we(More)
— As hand-held devices become popular in society, the demand for mobility is extended to teaching and learning purposes. This paper presents the design and implementation of a mobile learning system for syndromic surveillance and diagnosis. This system can assist farmers and veterinary students to study surveillance and diagnosis of farm animal diseases in(More)
To better define the roles of assembly factors required for eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis, we have focused on one specific step in maturation of yeast 60 S ribosomal subunits: processing of 27SB pre-ribosomal RNA. At least 14 assembly factors, the 'B-factor' proteins, are required for this step. These include most of the major functional classes of(More)
Seed germination is regulated by endogenous hormonal cues and external environmental stimuli such as water, low temperature, and light. After germination, the young seedling must rapidly establish its root system and the photoautotrophic capability appropriate to its surrounding environment. Light and the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) both regulate seed(More)
Recent progress in method development for characterising the branched structures of complex carbohydrates has now enabled higher throughput technology. Automation of structure analysis then calls for software development since adding meaning to large data collections in reasonable time requires corresponding bioinformatics methods and tools. Current(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the benefit of PSA-based screening for prostate cancer from the patient and societal perspectives. METHOD A partially observable Markov decision process model was used to optimize PSA screening decisions. Age-specific prostate cancer incidence rates and the mortality rates from prostate cancer and competing causes were considered.(More)
Prostate cancer is the most common solid tumor in American men and is screened for using prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests. We report on a non-stationary partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP) for prostate biopsy referral decisions. The core states are the patients' prostate cancer related health states, and PSA test results are the(More)
OBJECTIVE This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in a Kazakh population aged ≥18 years living in the YiLi District of Xinjiang, China and to evaluate the associated risk factors of diabetes. METHODS Randomly selected adults, living for at least 6 months in the YiLi District in Xinjiang had(More)