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BACKGROUND MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNAs having large-scale regulatory effects on plant development and stress responses. Extensive studies of miRNAs have only been performed in a few model plants. Although miRNAs are proved to be involved in plant cold stress responses, little is known for winter-habit monocots. Brachypodium distachyon, with(More)
More than 170 proteins are necessary for assembly of ribosomes in eukaryotes. However, cofactors that function with each of these proteins, substrates on which they act, and the precise functions of assembly factors--e.g., recruiting other molecules into preribosomes or triggering structural rearrangements of pre-rRNPs--remain mostly unknown. Here we(More)
Seed germination is regulated by endogenous hormonal cues and external environmental stimuli such as water, low temperature, and light. After germination, the young seedling must rapidly establish its root system and the photoautotrophic capability appropriate to its surrounding environment. Light and the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) both regulate seed(More)
Atherosclerotic cerebral infarction (ACI) is characterized by extremely high fatality and disability rate. Recent studies indicate that co-stimulatory signal of tumor necrosis factor superfamily OX40/OX40L contributes to the atherosclerosis effect in ACI patients. However, it remains unclear the mechanism underlying the anti-atherosclerosis process. So this(More)
Prostate cancer is the most common solid tumor in American men and is screened for using prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests. We report on a non-stationary partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP) for prostate biopsy referral decisions. The core states are the patients' prostate cancer related health states, and PSA test results are the(More)
To better define the roles of assembly factors required for eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis, we have focused on one specific step in maturation of yeast 60 S ribosomal subunits: processing of 27SB pre-ribosomal RNA. At least 14 assembly factors, the 'B-factor' proteins, are required for this step. These include most of the major functional classes of(More)
— As hand-held devices become popular in society, the demand for mobility is extended to teaching and learning purposes. This paper presents the design and implementation of a mobile learning system for syndromic surveillance and diagnosis. This system can assist farmers and veterinary students to study surveillance and diagnosis of farm animal diseases in(More)
Arsenic produces liver disease through the oxidative stress. While lutein can alleviate cytotoxic and oxidative injury, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway plays a critical role in defending oxidative species. However, the mechanisms by which lutein protects the liver against the effect of arsenic are not known. Therefore, this study(More)
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key step in development, wound healing, and cancer development. It involves cooperation of signaling pathways, such as transformation growth factor-β (TGF-β), Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), and WNT pathways. These signaling pathways crosstalk to each other and converge to key transcription factors (e.g., SNAIL1) to(More)