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Endothelial cells and macrophages are known to engage in tight and specific interactions that contribute to the modulation of vascular function. Here we show that adult endothelial cells provide critical signals for the selective growth and differentiation of macrophages from several hematopoietic progenitors. The process features the formation of(More)
Radiotherapy is used to treat many types of cancer, but many treated patients relapse with local tumor recurrence. Tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells (TIM), including CD11b (ITGAM)(+)F4/80 (EMR1)+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAM), and CD11b(+)Gr-1 (LY6G)+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), respond to cancer-related stresses and play critical roles in(More)
Colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) recruits tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells (TIM) that suppress tumor immunity, including M2 macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). The CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R) is a tyrosine kinase that is targetable by small molecule inhibitors such as PLX3397. In this study, we used a syngeneic mouse model of(More)
Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is among the most fatal of all pediatric brain tumors. Aside from loss of function mutations in the SMARCB1 (BAF47/INI1/SNF5) chromatin remodeling gene, little is known of other molecular drivers of AT/RT. LIN28A and LIN28B are stem cell factors that regulate thousands of RNAs and are expressed in aggressive cancers.(More)
Growing evidence suggests that tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) promote cancer progression and therapeutic resistance by enhancing angiogenesis, matrix-remodeling, and immunosuppression. In this study, prostate cancer under androgen blockade therapy (ABT) was investigated, demonstrating that TAMs contribute to prostate cancer disease recurrence through(More)
The paucity of cell culture models for childhood brain tumors prompted us to establish pediatric cell lines for use in biological experiments and preclinical developmental therapeutic studies. Three cell lines were established, CHLA-200 (GBM), CHLA-259 (anaplastic medulloblastoma) and CHLA-266 (atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor, AT/RT). Consistent with an(More)
PURPOSE We present here the first report of PID1 (Phosphotyrosine Interaction Domain containing 1; NYGGF4) in cancer. PID1 was identified in 2006 as a gene that modulates insulin signaling and mitochondrial function in adipocytes and muscle cells. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND RESULTS Using four independent medulloblastoma datasets, we show that mean PID1 mRNA(More)
Inhibition of integrins αvβ3/αvβ5 by the cyclic function-blocking peptide, RGDfV (Arg-Gly-Asp-Phe-Val) can induce apoptosis in both normal cells and tumor cells. We show that RGDfV induced apoptosis in ECV-304 carcinoma cells, increased activity and mRNA expression of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), and increased ceramides C(16), C(18:0), C(24:0) and C(24:1)(More)
Ofd1 is a newly identified causative gene for Retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a photoreceptor degenerative disease. This study aimed to examine Ofd1 localization in retina and further to investigate its function in photoreceptor degeneration models. Ofd1 localization in rat retina was examined using immunofluorescence. N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced rats(More)
How attention interacts with low-level visual representations to give rise to perception remains a central yet controversial question in neuroscience. While several previous studies suggest that the units of attentional selection are individual objects, other evidence points instead toward lower-level features, such as an attended color or direction of(More)