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RATIONALE Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant widely used by pregnant women. Epidemiological data suggest that fluoxetine exposure prenatally increases the prevalence of persistent pulmonary hypertension syndrome of the newborn. The mechanism responsible for this effect is unclear and paradoxical, considering the current(More)
8-Isoprostaglandin F2alpha (8-iso-PGF2alpha) is a bioactive lipid peroxidation product that is a vasoconstrictor at high concentrations. Paradoxically, at lower, and possibly physiological, concentrations, it is a pulmonary vascular muscle's relaxant. Its effects on newborn pulmonary vasculature are unknown. We hypothesized that the pulmonary arterial(More)
PURPOSE To characterize the effect of intraocular pressure (IOP) on optic disc topography, retinal function, and axonal survival in a model of IOP-induced optic nerve damage in rat. METHODS Hypertonic (1.75 M) saline was injected into an episcleral vein of one eye of 49 Brown Norway rats, with the fellow untreated eye serving as the control. During the 1(More)
Arthopods such as Ixodes scapularis ticks serve as vectors for many human pathogens. The arthropod gut presents a pivotal microbial entry point and determines pathogen colonization and survival. We show that the gut microbiota of I. scapularis, a major vector of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, influence spirochete colonization of ticks.(More)
Cyclic nucleotides are relaxants of the airway smooth muscle, yet most of the available data were obtained in adult animals. The expression and activity of cyclases have been reported to be developmentally regulated in the lung, and little is known about the age-related changes in their bronchial muscle relaxation potential. We evaluated and compared the(More)
Arginases compete with nitric oxide (NO) synthases for L-arginine as common substrate. Pulmonary vascular and airway diseases in which arginase activity is increased are associated with decreased NO production and reduced smooth muscle relaxation. The developmental patterns of arginase activity and type I and II isoforms expression in the lung have not been(More)
Xanthine oxidase (XO)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation contributes to experimental chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in adults, but its role in neonatal pulmonary hypertension has received little attention. In rats chronically exposed to hypoxia (13% O(2)) for 14 days from birth, we examined the effects of ROS scavengers (U74389G 10(More)
In the fetal rat, nitrofen induces congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and pulmonary vascular remodeling similar to what is observed in the human condition. Airway hyperactivity is common in infants with CDH and attributed to the ventilator-induced airway damage. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that airway smooth muscle mechanical(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) reacts with superoxide anion to form the peroxynitrite anion (ONOO-), a molecule with pulmonary vasodilator properties in the adult rat. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of ONOO- on intrapulmonary arteries from the newborn (days 4-7), juvenile (day 14), and adult rat. Following thromboxane A2 (TXA2) analogue (U46619)(More)
Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a regulator of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. Deficient levels result in eNOS uncoupling, with a shift from nitric oxide to superoxide generation. The hph-1 mutant mouse has deficient GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH1) activity, resulting in low BH4 tissue content. The adult hph-1 mouse has pulmonary hypertension,(More)