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Time series data provided by single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) experiments offer the opportunity to infer not only model parameters describing molecular complexes, e.g., rate constants, but also information about the model itself, e.g., the number of conformational states. Resolving whether such states exist or how many of them(More)
By using single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET), we observe the real-time dynamic coupling between the ribosome, labeled at the L1 stalk, and transfer RNA (tRNA). We find that an interaction between the ribosomal L1 stalk and the newly deacylated tRNA is established spontaneously upon peptide bond formation; this event involves(More)
Determining the mechanism by which tRNAs rapidly and precisely transit through the ribosomal A, P, and E sites during translation remains a major goal in the study of protein synthesis. Here, we report the real-time dynamics of the L1 stalk, a structural element of the large ribosomal subunit that is implicated in directing tRNA movements during(More)
Ribosomal frameshifting occurs when a ribosome slips a few nucleotides on an mRNA and generates a new sequence of amino acids. Programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting (-1PRF) is used in various systems to express two or more proteins from a single mRNA at precisely regulated levels. We used single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) to(More)
Translocation of tRNAs through the ribosome during protein synthesis involves large-scale structural rearrangement of the ribosome and ribosome-bound tRNAs that is accompanied by extensive and dynamic remodeling of tRNA-ribosome interactions. How the rearrangement of individual tRNA-ribosome interactions influences tRNA movement during translocation,(More)
Cells express many ribosome-interacting factors whose functions and molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we elucidate the mechanism of a newly characterized regulatory translation factor, energy-dependent translational throttle A (EttA), which is an Escherichia coli representative of the ATP-binding cassette F (ABC-F) protein family. Using cryo-EM, we(More)
Base-pairing interactions between nucleic acids mediate target recognition in many biological processes. We developed a super-resolution imaging and modeling platform that enabled the in vivo determination of base pairing-mediated target recognition kinetics. We examined a stress-induced bacterial small RNA, SgrS, which induces the degradation of target(More)
Characterizing the structural dynamics of the translating ribosome remains a major goal in the study of protein synthesis. Deacylation of peptidyl-tRNA during translation elongation triggers fluctuations of the pretranslocation ribosomal complex between two global conformational states. Elongation factor G-mediated control of the resulting dynamic(More)
Binding specificity of Cas9-guide RNA complexes to DNA is important for genome-engineering applications; however, how mismatches influence target recognition/rejection kinetics is not well understood. Here we used single-molecule FRET to probe real-time interactions between Cas9-RNA and DNA targets. The bimolecular association rate is only weakly dependent(More)
One of the most challenging unanswered questions regarding the structural biology of biomolecular machines such as the two-subunit ribosome is whether and how these machines coordinate seemingly independent and random conformational fluctuations to maximize and regulate their functional efficiencies. To address this question, we have used ribosome(More)