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Animals move over a range of speeds by using rhythmic networks of neurons located in the spinal cord. Here we use electrophysiology and in vivo imaging in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) to reveal a systematic relationship between the location of a spinal neuron and the minimal swimming frequency at which the neuron is active. Ventral motor neurons and(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is believed to play a role in diabetic kidney disease. This study explores the specific effects of TNF-α with regard to nephropathy-relevant parameters in the podocyte. METHODS Cultured mouse podocytes were treated with recombinant TNF-α and assayed for production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)(More)
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