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— The conventional principal component analysis (PCA) based pattern matching methods have been applied to dynamic process monitoring. However, they do not take into account the non-Gaussian features in industrial processes and are also more focused on fault detection instead of fault diagnosis. In this paper, an independent component analysis and mutual… (More)
An amorphous metal-free N-doped carbon film prepared by sputtering and annealing exhibits comparable electrocatalytic activity and superior stability and methanol tolerance to the commercial Pt/C catalyst via a four-electron pathway for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Pyridinic nitrogen in films plays a key role in electrocatalytic activity for ORR.