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Akt/PKB (protein kinase B) both regulates and is regulated by the TSC (tuberous sclerosis complex) 1-TSC2 complex. Downstream of PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase), Akt phosphorylates TSC2 directly on multiple sites. Although the molecular mechanism is not well understood, these phosphorylation events relieve the inhibitory effects of the TSC1-TSC2 complex on(More)
TSC1 and TSC2 are the tumour-suppressor genes mutated in the tumour syndrome TSC (tuberous sclerosis complex). Their gene products form a complex that has become the focus of many signal transduction researchers. The TSC1-TSC2 (hamartin-tuberin) complex, through its GAP (GTPase-activating protein) activity towards the small G-protein Rheb (Ras homologue(More)
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a protein kinase that forms two functionally distinct complexes important for nutrient and growth factor signaling. Both complexes phosphorylate a hydrophobic motif on downstream protein kinases, which contributes to the activation of these kinases. mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) phosphorylates S6K1, while mTORC2(More)
BACKGROUND The signaling pathways imposing hormonal control over adipocyte differentiation are poorly understood. While insulin and Akt signaling have been found previously to be essential for adipogenesis, the relative importance of their many downstream branches have not been defined. One direct substrate that is inhibited by Akt-mediated phosphorylation(More)
We developed a natural, acellular, 3-D interconnected porous scaffold derived from cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM). Human cartilage was physically shattered, then decellularized sequentially with use of hypotonic buffer, TritonX-100, and a nuclease solution and made into a suspension. The scaffold was fabricated by simple freeze-drying and(More)
Mutations in the TSC1 and TSC2 tumor suppressor genes give rise to the neoplastic disorders tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Their gene products form a complex that is a critical negative regulator of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) and cell growth. We recently found that the TSC1-TSC2 complex promotes(More)
Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is being widely used to screen for recurrent genomic copy number alterations in neoplasms, with imbalances typically detected through the application of gain and loss thresholds. Review of array CGH publications for the year 2005 showed that a wide range of thresholds are used. However, the effect of sample(More)
The present study aims to investigate the feasibility of tissue-engineered cartilage constructed in vivo and in vitro by dynamically culturing adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) with an articular cartilage acellular matrix in a bioreactor and subsequently implanting the cartilage in nude mice. ADSCs were proliferated, combined with three dimensional(More)
Autophagy, a vacuolar process of cytoplasmic degradation, is implicated in a form of programmed cell death distinct from apoptosis. The regulation of autophagy is complex and signalling pathways such as the target of rapamycin (Tor) kinase pathway, play important roles in tumourigenesis. Beclin 1, an autophagic protein, has been found to be a tumour(More)
An ideal scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering should be biomimetic in not only mechanical property and biochemical composition, but also the morphological structure. In this research, we fabricated a composite scaffold with oriented structure to mimic cartilage physiological morphology, where natural nanofibrous articular cartilage extracellular matrix(More)