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The hippocampus, being sensitive to stress and glucocorticoids, plays significant roles in certain types of learning and memory. Therefore, the hippocampus is probably involved in the increasing drug use, drug seeking, and relapse caused by stress. We have studied the effect of stress with morphine on synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region of the hippocampus(More)
It has not been uniform to date that the Ginkgo biloba extracts enhance cognitive function in aged animals, and the mechanisms of action remain difficult to elucidate. In this study, the Morris water maze task and electrophysiological methods were used to study the effects of repeated daily administration of EGb 761, a standardized extract from G. biloba(More)
The effects of aniracetam on extracellular amino acid levels in the hippocampus of conscious gerbils, with or without transient cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, were measured by microdialysis and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography. Increased extracellular levels of aspartate and glutamate that were observed in the hippocampus of conscious(More)
Extract of Ginkgo biloba is used to alleviate age-related decline in cognitive function, which may be associated with the loss of catecholamines in the prefrontal cortex. The purpose of this study was to verify whether alpha-2 adrenergic activity is involved in the facilitative effects of extract of Ginkgo biloba on prefrontal cognitive function. Male(More)
We simultaneously recorded auditory evoked potentials (AEP) from the temporal cortex (TCx), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dPFCx) and the parietal cortex (PCx) in the freely moving rhesus monkey to investigate state-dependent changes of the AEP. AEPs obtained during passive wakefulness, active wakefulness (AW), slow wave sleep and rapid-eye-movement(More)
Declines in dopamine neurotransmission are a robust characteristic of the process of normal aging. Using neuroimaging, biochemical and cognitive methods, age-related reduction of D2 receptor has been noted in a wide range of species. On the other hand, it is well known that dopamine plays a crucial role in the modulation of sensory gating. Here, we examined(More)
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