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The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of infection and genotype of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in people and animals in the northeast of China (Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning provinces). This seroepidemiological study was conducted using enzyme immunoassays and human sera positive for HEV antigen or anti-HEV IgM, and animal sera positive for HEV(More)
T cell activation is regulated by the interactions of surface receptors with stimulatory and inhibitory ligands. Programmed death-1 homolog (PD-1H, also called VISTA) is a member of the CD28 family of proteins and has been shown to act as a coinhibitory ligand on APCs that suppress T cell responses. Here, we determined that PD-1H functions as a coinhibitory(More)
The current success of targeted inhibition against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and Programmed Death 1/Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1, herein collectively referred to as PD) pathways is hailed as a cancer immunotherapy breakthrough. PD-L1, known also as B7 homolog 1 (B7-H1), was initially discovered by Dr. Lieping Chen in(More)
The central nervous system (CNS) is an immune-privileged organ with the capacity to prevent excessive inflammation. Aside from the blood-brain barrier, active immunosuppressive mechanisms remain largely unknown. We report that a neuron-specific molecule, synaptic adhesion-like molecule 5 (SALM5), is a crucial contributor to CNS immune privilege. We found(More)
Acknowledgments This is not simply a dissertation, but also a record of the most important journey in my life. My sincere gratitude goes to all the great people who supported me along this amazing process to complete my doctoral studies in Economics. I wish to express enormous thanks to my main advisor Professor Robert Margo. His excellent guidance and(More)
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