In this paper we explored many versions of CELP codecs and studied different codebooks they use to encode noisy part of residual. Taking advantage of noise patterns they generated, an algorithm was proposed to detect GSM-AMR,EFR,HR and SILK codecs. Then it's extended to identify subframe offset to do tampering detection of cellphone speech recordings.
Viruses rely on host chaperone network to support their infection. In particular, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident chaperones play key roles in synthesizing and processing viral proteins. Influx of a large amount of foreign proteins exhausts the folding capacity in ER and triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR). A fully-executed UPR comprises… (More)