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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neuromuscular disorder characterized by degeneration of motor neurons and atrophy of skeletal muscle. Mutations in the superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene are linked to 20% cases of inherited ALS. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenic process, but how it contributes to muscle degeneration(More)
Ca2+ sparks of membrane-permeabilized rat muscle cells were analyzed to derive properties of their sources. Most events identified in longitudinal confocal line scans looked like sparks, but 23% (1,000 out of 4,300) were followed by long-lasting embers. Some were preceded by embers, and 48 were "lone embers." Average spatial width was approximately 2 microm(More)
A human brain alpha 1 Ca2+ channel subunit was cloned and expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The open reading frame, encoding 2,312 amino acids, has high homology to the marine ray doe-1, the rat E-type, and the rabbit brain BII alpha 1 subunits. The amino and carboxy termini of this human.E-type alpha 1 subunit (alpha 1E) are most similar to the rabbit(More)
Contractile activation in striated muscles requires a Ca(2+) reservoir of large capacity inside the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), presumably the protein calsequestrin. The buffering power of calsequestrin in vitro has a paradoxical dependence on [Ca(2+)] that should be valuable for function. Here, we demonstrate that this dependence is present in living(More)
Cytosolic [Ca(2+)] transients elicited by voltage clamp depolarization were examined by confocal line scanning of rat skeletal muscle fibres. Ca(2+) sparks were observed in the fibres' membrane-permeabilized ends, but not in responses to voltage in the membrane-intact area. Elementary events of the depolarization-evoked response could be separated either at(More)
Stimuli are translated to intracellular calcium signals via opening of inositol trisphosphate receptor and ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels of the sarcoplasmic reticulum or endoplasmic reticulum. In cardiac and skeletal muscle of amphibians the stimulus is depolarization of the transverse tubular membrane, transduced by voltage sensors at(More)
To activate skeletal muscle contraction, action potentials must be sensed by dihydropyridine receptors (DHPRs) in the T tubule, which signal the Ca(2+) release channels or ryanodine receptors (RyRs) in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) to open. We demonstrate here an inhibitory effect of the T tubule on the production of sparks of Ca(2+) release. Murine(More)
Activation of protein kinase A (PKA) increases Na+ current derived from the human cardiac Na+ channel, hH1, in a slow, nonsaturable manner. This effect is prevented by compounds that disrupt plasma membrane recycling, implying enhanced trafficking of channels to the cell membrane as the mechanism responsible for Na+ current potentiation. To investigate the(More)
The contribution of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) to trigger muscle contraction is controversial. It was studied on isolated muscle fibres using synthetic localized increases in Ca2+ concentration, SLICs, generated by two-photon photorelease from nitrodibenzofuran (NDBF)-EGTA just outside the permeabilized plasma membrane. SLICs provided a way to(More)
Previous studies have shown that NH2 termini of the type 1 and 2 beta-subunits modulate the rate at which the neuronal alpha 1E calcium channel inactivates in response to voltage and that they do so independently of their common effect to stimulate activation by voltage (R. Olcese, N. Qin, T. Schneider, A. Neely, X. Wei, E. Stefani, and L. Birnbaumer,(More)