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A simple, rapid method for bacterial lysis and direct extraction of DNA from soils with minimal shearing was developed to address the risk of chimera formation from small template DNA during subsequent PCR. The method was based on lysis with a high-salt extraction buffer (1.5 M NaCl) and extended heating (2 to 3 h) of the soil suspension in the presence of(More)
Steroid receptors and coactivator proteins are thought to stimulate gene expression by facilitating the assembly of basal transcription factors into a stable preinitiation complex. What is not clear, however, is how these transcription factors gain access to transcriptionally repressed chromatin to modulate the transactivation of specific gene networks in(More)
The survival, differentiation, and maintenance of responsive neurons are regulated by nerve growth factor (NGF), which is secreted by the target and interacts with receptors on the axon tip. It is uncertain how the NGF signal is communicated retrogradely from distal axons to neuron cell bodies. Retrograde transport of activated receptors in endocytic(More)
Protein kinase C (PKC) plays a central role in the control of proliferation and differentiation of a wide range of cell types by mediating the signal transduction response to hormones and growth factors. Upon activation by diacylglycerol, PKC translocates to different subcellular sites where it phosphorylates numerous proteins, most of which are(More)
Two closely related beta subunit mRNAs (xo28 and xo32) were identified in Xenopus oocytes by molecular cloning. One or both appear to be expressed as active proteins, because: (i) injection of Xenopus beta antisense oligonucleotides, but not of sense or unrelated oligonucleotides, significantly reduced endogenous oocyte voltage-gated Ca2+ channel (VGCC)(More)
Polycystic kidney diseases are genetic disorders in which the renal parenchyma is progressively replaced by fluid-filled cysts. Two members of the polycystin family (polycystin-1 and -2) are mutated in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), and polycystin-L is deleted in mice with renal and retinal defects. Polycystins are membrane proteins(More)
alpha(1C)- and alpha(1E)-based Ca2+ channels differ in that the former are inhibited by Ca2+ entering through its pore, while the latter are not. It has been proposed on the basis of analysis of alpha(1E)/alpha(1C) chimeras that the molecular determinants responsible for Ca2+ inhibition involve both a conserved Ca2+-binding motif (EF hand) plus additional(More)
A human brain alpha 1 Ca2+ channel subunit was cloned and expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The open reading frame, encoding 2,312 amino acids, has high homology to the marine ray doe-1, the rat E-type, and the rabbit brain BII alpha 1 subunits. The amino and carboxy termini of this human.E-type alpha 1 subunit (alpha 1E) are most similar to the rabbit(More)
Genetic heterogeneity of denitrifying bacteria in sediment samples from Puget Sound and two sites on the Washington continental margin was studied by PCR approaches amplifying nirK and nirS genes. These structurally different but functionally equivalent single-copy genes coding for nitrite reductases, a key enzyme of the denitrification process, were used(More)