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Enhancers are essential gene regulatory elements whose alteration can lead to morphological differences between species, developmental abnormalities, and human disease. Current strategies to identify enhancers focus primarily on noncoding sequences and tend to exclude protein coding sequences. Here, we analyzed 25 available ChIP-seq data sets that identify(More)
In addition to their protein coding function, exons can also serve as transcriptional enhancers. Mutations in these exonic-enhancers (eExons) could alter both protein function and transcription. However, the functional consequence of eExon mutations is not well known. Here, using massively parallel reporter assays, we dissect the enhancer activity of three(More)
Aptamers are artificial oligonucleotides (DNA or RNA) that can bind to a broad range of targets. In diagnostic and detection assays, aptamers represent an alternative to antibodies as recognition agents. The objective of this study was to select and characterize DNA aptamers that can specifically bind to avian influenza virus (AIV) H5N1 based on Systematic(More)
What is the best account to explain the object-based attentional benefit-that is, the spread of attention within an attended object or prioritization of search across possible target locations within an attended object? Using a task in which the location of the target was known with certainty, in the present study we systematically manipulated the type(More)
In vitro glycorandomization (IVG) technology is dependent upon the ability to rapidly synthesize sugar phosphates. Compared with chemical synthesis, enzymatic (kinase) routes to sugar phosphates would be attractive for this application. This work focuses upon the development of a high-throughput colorimetric galactokinase (GalK) assay and its application(More)
Thermophiles are referred to as microorganisms with optimal growth temperatures of >60 °C. Over the past few years, a number of studies have been conducted regarding thermophiles, especially using the omics strategies. This review provides a systematic view of the survival physiology of thermophiles from an "omics" perspective, which suggests that the(More)
Using photocatalytic reactive nanoparticles and DNA composite modified gold electrodes, exploiting the sensitivity of DNA-mediated electron transfer to base pair stacking, we examined the effects of DNA oxidation damage by photocatalytically generated hydroxyl radicals (˙OH) on charge transfer efficiency and proposed an electrochemical technique to read the(More)
How do human listeners differentiate one language from another? In this study we examine the contributions of acoustic and linguistic cues to successful language discrimination. In particular, we report findings that reveal patterns of cortical competition as a function of the competition between prosodic, phonological, and lexical semantic information(More)
We present two statistical sequential analytical approaches to estimate particle size distribution of magnetic nanoparticles. They are termed sequential least square estimation and sequential linear minimum mean square error estimation, respectively. These approaches are implemented and quantified within the formalism of sequential estimation theory. The(More)